Polymers in Organic Electronics. Polymer Selection for Electronic, Mechatronic & Optoelectronic Systems

Polymers in Organic Electronics. Polymer Selection for Electronic, Mechatronic & Optoelectronic Systems

Author: Sulaiman Khalifeh
ISBN 978-1-927885-67-3

Publication date:  January 2020
Pages: 606+x
Figures: 189
Tables: 76


Electronics (including micro, nano, and quantum systems); mechanics (including MEMS, NEMS, MOEMS, and NOEMS); mechatronics (including robots, artificial muscles, and automated air vehicles); informatics (including software, hardware, and communication); materials science (including conjugated polymers, smart materials, and conducting small molecules); and optoelectronics (optical fibers and lenses) are the critical elements of development in science today. An integration is the practical concept by which these elements are combined and implemented; so that a new high performance, low cost, and lightweight organic electronic components (devices or systems) can be produced with shorter lead time.

Organic electronics or polymer electronics represent the important branch of material science dealing with electrically conductive polymers and small conductive molecules of carbon-based nature. This branch focuses on optimizing the semi-conductivity, conductivity, light emitting properties of organic materials (polymers, oligomers, and small molecules), and hybrid composites having organic-inorganic structures. That is because organic (p-conjugated) polymers exhibit the following attractive advantages:

  • can be formed and shaped from solution depending on high-tech processes such as spin coating or inkjet printing at room temperature due to their lightweight and flexibility.
  • the capability of acting as electron donors and acceptors for structuring organic photovoltaics such as large scale, micro-, and nano-solar cells.
  • the ability to control their low band gaps energy levels makes them promising for fabricating developed organic electronic systems such as field-effect transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, etc.

Every year new conducting polymers, small molecules, composites, and complexes are being developed. Parallel to such development, the opportunities for additional electronic applications have increased. Included in this book are polymeric structures of the most familiar electronic devices (micro, opto, nano, etc.).

The main objective of this book is to help designers to optimize their design of organic electronic systems built out of novel polymers. For example, it is not enough to calculate the optical constants of an optoelectronic light-emitting diode LED using Afromowitz dielectric model starting from the calculation of real and imaginary part of the dielectric function, but its optical performance must be optimized by applying optical modeling of thin layers on a polymeric substrate.

Chapter 1 is an introduction to polymers for electronic engineers. It provides identifications of polymers, micro-polymers, nano-polymers, resins, hydrocarbons, and oligomers. The chapter contains a classification of polymer families, types, complexes, composites, nanocomposites, compounds, and small molecules. Several optimized ideas have been introduced to make this book a practical reference source.

Chapter 2 is also introductory but explaining the principles of electronics to polymer engineers. It provides information on electronic theories of polymers. The theories are very important for undergraduate students in understanding mechanisms of polymer conductivity and studying theories governing electrical conductivity of polymers. This chapter was also illustrated with optimized ideas to facilitate practical applications.

Chapter 3 contains information on concepts and optimized types of electronic (polymers, small molecules, organic complexes, and elastomers). It contains a classification system of electronic polymers such as piezoelectric and pyroelectric, optoelectronic, electroactive, and mechatronics, and electronic small molecules, organic electronic complexes, and electronic elastomers. The chapter helps in the selection of the optimized electronic polymers, small molecules, complexes, and elastomers for structuring organic electronic systems.

Chapter 4 covers the most common properties of electronic polymers, such as electrical, electronic, and optical properties. The methods of optimization of electrical, electronic, and optical properties-dependent organic electronic structures are critical components of the chapter. For example, high occupied molecular orbital HOMO, low unoccupied molecular orbital LUMO, band gap, are essential concepts for understanding the electronic properties of electronic polymers.

Chapter 5 is the location of discussion on polymeric structured printed circuit boards (PCBs). Here the reader may start building his own experience in creating polymer-based PCBs. Advanced PCBs and rapid PCB prototyping (a state of the art) are discussed. Optimizing the polymeric structures of organic printed circuit boards is broadly discussed here.

Both chapters 6 and 7 are based on two crucial and advanced types of electronic components (polymer-based active and passive electronic components). Chapter 6 focuses on optimizing the polymeric structures of organic active electronic components, and chapter 7 on optimizing the polymeric structures of organic passive electronic components. The most critical systems listed in chapter 6 include integrated circuits ICs, organic thin-film transistors OTFT, organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs, optoelectronic devices, photovoltaic (or photo-electronic) systems, tandem or multi-junction organic solar cells, display technologies, discharge devices, organic thermo-electric generators, etc. The most important systems listed in chapter 7 include thin-film resistors, tantalum capacitors, axial inductor, fiber optic cable (fiber optic networks), optical sensors, flexible-skin contact antenna, flexible elastomeric actuators, etc.

Chapter 8 describes the polymeric structures of optoelectronics and photonics supplied with the main optical and physical properties of conjugated polymers used for structuring the most developed optoelectronic devices and their optimization. Optoelectronic polymers such as optical electroactive conjugated polymers, optical organic photovoltaic polymers, and electro-phosphorescence polymers are used to emphasize the high efficiencies of the used optoelectronic devices.

Chapter 9 has been designed to show the importance of polymeric structures for packaging of electronic devices, namely nanoelectronic packaging such as nanoelectronic circuits packaging and nanoelectromechanical packaging NEMS. Optimized polymeric structures of organic electronic packages are the subject of this chapter.

1 Introduction to Polymers for Electronic Engineers
1.1 Overview
1.2 Synthetic electronic polymers
1.3 Chemistry of electronic polymers
1.3.1 Electronic resins
1.3.2 Hydrocarbons (nature and electronic applications)
1.4 Concepts of electronic polymers
1. 4.1 Bond type of polymer
1. 4.2 Chain geometry of polymers
1. 4.3 Characteristics and properties of polymers
1.4.4 Polymer morphology
1.5 Classification of polymer families and types
1.5.1 Electronic thermoplastic polymers
1.5.2 Electronic thermosetting polymers
1.5.3 Electronic elastomers
1.6 Micro- and nano-electronic polymers
1.7 Electronic copolymers and copolymerization
1.8 Electronic oligomers
1.9 Electronic polymer-based compounds
1.9.1 Electronic inorganic polymers
1.9.2 Electronic organometallic polymers
1.9.3 Electronic complex polymers
1.9.4 Electronic small molecules
1.9.5 Electronic nanocomposites

2 Electronics for Polymer Engineers
2.1 Electrical conductivity of electronic polymers
2.2 Electronic polymers “electrical conductivity” theory
2.3 Electronic polymers “charge transport and charge transfer” theory
2.4 Electronic polymers “molecular orbital” theory
2.5 Electronic polymers “valence bond and Lewis structure” theory
2.6 Electronic polymers “electroluminescent” theory
2.7 Electronic polymers “piezoelectricity” theory
2.8 Electronic polymers “electroactivity” theory
2.9 Fundamentals of microelectronics for polymers
2.10 Fundamentals of nanoelectronics for polymers
2.11 Fundamentals of optoelectronics for polymers

3 Optimized Electronic Polymers, Small Molecules, Complexes,
and Elastomers for Organic Electronic Systems
3.1 Electronic polymers
3.2 Electroactive polymers
3.2.1 Electronic-electroactive polymers
3.2.2 Ionic-electroactive polymers
3.3 Non-electroactive polymers
3.3.1 Chemically activated polymers
3.3.2 Shape memory polymers
3.3.3 Electronic inflatable structure polymers
3.3.4 Electronic light-activated polymers
3.3.5 Magnetically activated polymers
3.3.6 Electronic thermally activated gels
3.4 Electronic conductive (conjugated and doped) polymers
3.4.1 Electronic extrinsically conductive polymers
3.4.2 Electronic intrinsically (inherently) conductive polymers
3.5 Electronic piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymers
3.5.1 Electronic bulk piezoelectric polymers
3.5.2 Electronic piezoelectric/polymeric composites
3.5.3 Electronic voided charged piezoelectric polymers
3.6 Microelectronic polymers
3.6.1 Microelectronic three-dimensional conjugated macromolecules
3.6.2 Microelectronic low-k polymers in microelectronics
3.6.3 Organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites for microelectronics
3.7 Nanoelectronic polymers (nanopolymers)
3.7.1 Electroactive nanostructured polymers
3.7.2 Self-assembled nanostructured polymers
3.7.3 Non-self-assembled nanostructured polymers
3.7.4 Numbered nanoscale dimension polymers
3.8 Optoelectronic polymers
3.8.1 Optoelectronic light-emitting polymers
3.8.2 Optoelectronic light transporting polymers
3.8.3 Optoelectronic light receiving (absorbing) polymers
3.9 Actuation polymers
3.9.1 Stretchable electronic polymers
3.9.2 Robotic polymers
3.10 Electronic small molecules
3.10.1 Electronic small molecules based on polycyclic aromatics
3.10.2 Solution-processable electronic small molecules
3.10.3 Electronic small molecule dyes
3.10.4 Donor-p-acceptor structure electronic small molecules
3.10.5 Optoelectronic small molecules
3.10.6 Organic p-conjugated electronic small molecules
3.11 Organic electronic complexes
3.11.1 Polymeric metal complexes
3.11.2 Small molecule complexes
3.11.3 Heavy-metal complexes
3.12 Electronic elastomers
3.12.1 Electronic liquid crystalline elastomers
3.12.2 Ferroelectric elastomers
3.12.3 Electrostrictive grafted elastomers
3.12.4 Optoelectronic elastomers
3.12.5 Electrostatic elastomers
3.12.6 Electroviscoelastic elastomers
3.12.7 Electromagnetic-interference-shielding elastomers
3.12.8 Electronic stretchable elastomers

4 Optimization of Electrical, Electronic and Optical Properties of Organic Electronic Structures
4.1 Overview
4.2 Electrical properties
4.3 Electronic properties
4.3.1 HOMO-LUMO energy (band) gaps
4.3.2 Electronic excitation energy
4.3.3 Absorption wavelength
4.4 Optical properties
4.4.1 Transparency and colorlessness
4.4.2 Refractive index
4.4.3 Optical absorption
4.4.4 Birefringence
4.4.5 Optical transmission
4.4.6 Polarizability
4.4.7 Haze
4.4.8 Photoconductivity
4.4.9 Optical emission
4.4.10 Luminescence

5 Optimization of Polymeric Structures of Organic Printed Circuit Boards
5.1 Overview
5.2 Polymers for conventional printed circuit boards
5.2.1 Dielectric substrate-based polymeric printed circuit boards
5.2.2 Prepreg polymeric printed circuit boards
5.2.3 Polymeric single-sided printed circuit boards
5.2.4 Polymeric structures of double-sided printed circuit boards
5.2.5 Polymeric structures of multilayered printed circuit boards
5.3 Polymeric structures of flexible printed circuit boards
5.3.1 Polymeric structures of single-sided flexible printed circuit boards
5.3.2 Polymeric structures of double-sided flexible printed circuit boards
5.3.3 Polymeric structures of multilayer flexible printed circuit boards
5.3.4 Polymeric structures of rigid-flexible printed circuit boards
5.3.5 Polymeric structures of dual access (back-bared) flexible printed circuit boards
5.3.6 Polymeric structures of polymer thick-film flexible printed circuit boards
5.4 Polymeric structures of ultra-multilayer printed circuit boards
5.5 Polymeric structure of three-dimensional printed circuit boards
5.5.1 Polymers in molded interconnected devices
5.5.2 Combination of molded interconnected device polymers
5.5.3 Manufacturing methods of molded interconnected devices
5.6 Functions of advanced printed circuit boards optimized
5.6.1 Printed circuit boards embedded in a polymeric substrate
5.6.2 Polymeric microelectronic printed circuit boards
5.6.3 Polymeric nanoelectronic printed circuit boards
5.6.4 Polymeric optoelectronic printed circuit boards
5.6.5 Polymeric structures of smart-textile printed circuit boards
5.7 Polymeric structures of rapid printed circuit boards (state of the art)

6 Optimized Polymeric Structures of Organic Active Electronic Components
6.1 Overview
6.2 Polymeric structures of organic semiconductors
6.2.1 Polymeric structures of organic integrated circuits
6.2.2 Polymeric structures of organic transistors
6.2.3 Polymeric structures of organic diodes
6.2.4 Polymeric structures of organic optoelectronic systems
6.3 Polymeric structures of organic display technologies
6.4 Polymeric structures of organic discharge devices
6.5 Polymeric structures of organic power sources
6.5.1 Polymeric structures of organic batteries
6.5.2 Polymeric structures of organic fuel cells
6.5.3 Polymeric structures of organic thermoelectric generators
6.5.4 Polymeric structures for organic piezoelectric pressure

7 Polymeric Structures Optimized for Organic Passive Electronic Components
7.1 Overview
7.2 Organic film resistors
7.2.1 Thin film resistors
7.2.2 Thick film resistors
7.3 Organic capacitors
7.3.1 Organic film capacitors
7.3.2 Aluminum polymer capacitors
7.3.3 Tantalum polymer capacitors
7.3.4 Functional polymer capacitor
7.4 Organic magnetic systems
7.4.1 Magnetic polymers
7.4.2 Organic/polymeric magnets
7.5 Organic networks
7.6 Organic transducers
7.6.1 Piezoelectric polymer transducers
7.6.2 Ionic polymer transducers
7.6.3 Elastomeric transducers
7.7 Organic sensors
7.7.1 Organic gas sensors
7.7.2 Organic optical sensors
7.7.3 Organic fiber optic-sensors
7.7.4 Organic, flexible sensors
7.8 Organic antennas
7.9 Organic actuators
7.9.1 All-organic/polymeric actuators
7.9.2 Conducting polymer actuators
7.9.3 Ionomeric polymer-metal composite actuators
7.9.4 Piezoelectric polymer actuators
7.9.5 Flexible elastomeric actuators
7.9.6 Conjugated polymer actuators
7.9.7 Polymeric microactuators

8 Optimizing Polymeric Structures in Organic Optoelectronics
8.1 Overview
8.2 Optical polymers
8.2.1 Optical electroactive conjugated polymers
8.2.2 Transparent (photonic) polymers
8.2.3 Optical organic photovoltaic polymers
8.2.4 Electroluminescent polymers
8.2.5 Electro-phosphorescent polymers
8.3 Properties of optical polymers
8.4 Physical properties of optical polymers
8.5 Organic optoelectronic systems
8.5.1 Optical polymers for forming organic optoelectronic emitters
8.5.2 Optical polymers for organic electroluminescent systems
8.5.3 Organic photonics
8.5.4 Organic optical amplifiers
8.5.5 Organic optical detectors and receivers
8.5.6 Organic optoelectronic thin-films
8.5.7 Organic electro-optic modulators

9 Optimizing Polymeric Structures of Organic Electronic Packages
9.1 Overview
9.2 Polymers in organic electronic packaging
9.3 Polymeric structures of packaging systems
9.3.1 Polymeric dual in-line package
9.3.2 Polymeric single in-line package
9.3.3 Polymeric zig-zag in-line package
9.4 Structures of organic microelectronic packaging
9.4.1 Practical concept of organic microelectronic packaging
9.4.2 Organic microelectronic packages
9.5 Electrically and thermally conductive polymer adhesives
9.6 Organic microelectromechanical packaging
9.6.1 Polymeric thin-film multilayer packaging
9.6.2 Microelectromechanical packaging
9.6.3 Vacuum and air cavity packaged organic microelectromechanical systems
9.6.4 Organic encapsulation gels
9.6.5 Organic near-hermetic (quasi-hermetic) materials
9.7 Organic nanoelectronic packaging
9.7.1 Polymeric system-on a-chip (or nanochip)
9.7.2 Polymeric nanoscaled systems
9.7.3 Nanoelectronic circuit packaging (nanopackaging)
9.7.4 Organic nanoelectromechanical packaging
9.8 Organic optoelectronic packaging
9.8.1 Polymeric optoelectronic waveguides
9.8.2 Organic optocoupler (optoisolator) packaging
9.8.3 Organic microoptoelectromechanical systems packaging
9.9 Polymeric packages
9.10 Polymeric adhesive packages