Handbook of Surface Improvement and Modification, 2nd Edition

Handbook of Surface Improvement and Modification, 2nd Edition

Author: George Wypych

ISBN 978-1- 77467-024-8 (hardcover)

Published: Jan 2023
Pages 258+iv
Figures 129
Tables 44


This book covers the comprehensive study of surface improvement and modification, including the introduction of a range of processing methods such as physical, chemical, and electrochemical treatments. The fundamentals of theory, design and application are thoroughly discussed. It offers an authoritative view on surface improvement technology to both researchers and practitioners in various industry fields.

Surface appearance is one of the most important properties of many products. It must be tailored to the product needs, which are frequently very different in various applications.

This book is devoted to additives used for surface modification of materials a technology used in the production and processing of adhesives, appliances, automotive, bookbinding, building and construction, business machines, caulks, cellular phones, coatings, concrete, dental applications, electronics, flooring, footwear, furniture, graphic arts, hot-melt adhesives, hygiene, labels, lacquers, leather, lithographic inks, medicine, nanofluids, nonwovens, optical films, packaging, paints, paper, plastics, pressure-sensitive adhesives, printing inks, rubber, sealants, sporting goods, tapes, varnish, wire and cable, wood and many other materials. This book is the first known published book on this subject. The second edition brings, in addition to the verified content of the first edition, the discussion of the most recent findings and achievements in the field.

Handbook of Surface Improvement and Modification contains information on eleven groups of additives that are commercially available for the improvement and surface modification of manufactured materials. These include additives improving scratch and mar resistance, gloss, surface flattening, tack reduction, tack increase (tackifiers), surface tension reduction and wetting, surface cleaning, dirt pickup resistance, hydrophobization, anti-cratering, and leveling, and coefficient of static friction. They are discussed in separate chapters in the same order as above.

The highlights for each chapter are as follows.
Scratch and mar resistance: many important influences combined form mechanism of protection; scratch features (ironing, transition, stick-slip, tearing) determination; texture patterning and scratch visibility; self-healing; damage observation on nanoscale; violet laser scanning confocal microscope cross-section profile of scratch damage; silsesquioxanes

Gloss enhancement: magnetic resonance imaging measurements of human brain reactions; instrumental measurements; meso- and micro-scale roughness; hyperbranched resins; durability of gloss

Surface matting: powder coatings; roughness formation; dull black coatings; curing rate and flattening; low-gloss soft-touch; anti-glare coatings

Tack-free: abhesion features; instrumental surface tack measurement; surface tension; nature-inspired; completeness of cure; dental applications

Tackifiers: balance of elastic and viscous properties; structure and origin of rosins; phase structure of tackifying system; compatibility; environmental solutions; pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and medical applications

Surface tension and wetting: bottlebrush polymers; rigid-rod polymeric fiber; superhydrophobicity; superhydrophilicity; surface tension prediction; porosity and morphology; wettability surface gradient; surface free energy; bacterial adhesion; photo-induced hydrophilicity; orthopedic implants; high-speed printing; dry-erase inks

Surface cleaning and stain inhibition: in-source cleaner regeneration; the negative impact of perfluorinated acids; bio-inspired cleaning methods; hole generation and pollutant decomposition; photocatalytic self-cleaning; anti-graffiti coating, graffiti removal

Dirt pickup resistance: HDPE and carnauba waxes; mark and scuff resistance; decorative paints, wood stains, leather lacquers

Water-repelling: biomimetic solutions; superhydrophobic coatings; self-hydrophobization; superamphiphobic surfaces; chemical functionalization, microtextured surface; building structure protection; protection against ice formation

Anti-cratering and leveling: thixotropic behavior; nanoparticles; leveling agents; superplasticizers; powder coatings; sag-leveling balance; pinhole prevention

Coefficient of friction: tribometers; speed effect; dwell time effect; surface patterns and textured surfaces; elemental mapping; capillary bridge; human skin; dangling bonds; polymer brushes; lamellar tribofilm; microspheres, release agents; a film with a consistent coefficient of friction

A companion book entitled Databook of Surface Modification Additives has also been published. It contains information and data on the additives commercially available to improve materials by the above-listed modifications. Both books do not repeat information. In this book, the focus is on the methods and mechanisms which are known to be responsible for the enhancement of material properties with the use of additives. The readers of these books may also be interested in a recently published book entitled Self-healing Materials. Principles & Technology that helps to understand available options in new technologies of surface self-repair. All three books provide the most comprehensive information on the subject of surface improvement available today.

1 Introduction
2 Scratch and Mar Resistance
2.1 Methods and mechanisms of protection
2.2 Additives used
2.3 Application data
3 Gloss Enhancement
3.1 Gloss perception
3.2 Additives used
3.3 Methods and mechanisms of gloss enhancement
3.4 Durability of gloss
4 Surface Matting (Flattening)
4.1 Methods and mechanisms of flattening
4.2 Additives used
4.3 Application data
5 Tack-free Surface
5.1 Methods and mechanisms of tack reduction
5.2 Additives used
5.3 Application data
6 Tackifiers
6.1 Methods and mechanisms of tack enhancement
6.2 Additives used
6.3 Application data
7 Surface Tension and Wetting
7.1 Methods and mechanisms of surface tension reduction
7.2 Additives used
7.3 Application data
8 Easy Surface Cleaning and Stain Inhibition
8.1 Methods and mechanisms of surface cleaning
8.2 Additives used
8.3 Application data
9 Dirt Pickup Resistance
9.1 Methods and mechanisms of dirt pickup prevention
9.2 Additives use
9.3 Application data
10 Water Repelling (Hydrophobization)
10.1 Methods and mechanisms of hydrophobization
10.2 Additives used
10.3 Application data
11 Anti-cratering and Leveling
11.1 Methods and mechanisms of anti-cratering and leveling
11.2 Additives used
11.3 Application data
12 The Coefficient of Friction
12.1 Methods and mechanisms of improvement of the coefficient of friction
12.2 Additives used
12.3 Application data

George Wypych has a Ph. D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research & development. He has published 17 books: PVC Plastisols, (University Press); Polyvinylchloride Degradation, (Elsevier); Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, (Elsevier); Polymer Modified Textile Materials, (Wiley & Sons); Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Handbook of Fillers, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Recycling of PVC, (ChemTec Publishing); Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, (Plastics Design Library), Handbook of Solvents, Handbook of Plasticizers, Handbook of Antistatics, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives (1st and 2nd Editions), PVC Degradation & Stabilization, PVC Formulary, Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization, Handbook of Biodeterioration, Biodegradation and Biostabilization, and Handbook of Polymers (all by ChemTec Publishing), 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability, and the development of sealants and coatings. He is included in the Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, Who's Who in Engineering, and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition for his services to education.