Handbook of Impact Modifiers

Handbook of Impact Modifiers

George Wypych
ISBN 978-1- 77467-004-0
Publication: January 2022
Pages: 254+vi


Handbook of Impact Modifiers provides information on how to modify structure and morphology, improve mechanical performance, and prevent changes during the use of polymeric products by proper selection of impact modifiers. Handbook of Impact Modifiers brings analyses of important publications found in open and patent literature. Special attention is given to the last five years' findings, which brought many new essential developments.

The book begins with an analysis of the chemical origin and related properties of impact modifiers, which are analyzed in general terms to highlight the differences in their properties. The specific agents are discussed in the companion Databook of Impact Modifiers, which has been published as a separate book to help select products available in the commercial markets and analyze different products. The information included in Databook and Handbook is totally different without any repetition.

The Handbook contains the essential theoretical knowledge required for proper selection and use of impact modifiers, including their morphological structure and distribution in a polymer matrix, the effect on polymer crystallization in the presence and without impact modifiers, important influences on impact modification, mechanisms of modification, and effective methods of incorporation of impact modifiers.

Details on selection and performance in different polymers, products, and processing methods are included in three major chapters. Here extensive use is being made of patent literature and research papers available for different applications.

The final three chapters discuss the effects of impact modifiers on physical and mechanical properties of materials, essential analytical techniques used to analyze systems containing impact modifiers, and the health and safety and environmental impact of impact modifiers.

The only monographic source on the application of impact modifiers was published in 1991. Later published information included chapters on their application in various branches of polymers and their processing. The most recent publication is a marketing report with a world outlook in 2021-2025 that predicts a rapid increase in consumption of impact modifiers. This lack of fundamental information and data requires current specialized publication, the aim which these two books expect to provide.

Main groups of impact modifiers
General laws describing impact resistance rate of impact, temperature during impact (glass transition temperature of material), and relative humidity (amount of absorbed moisture by the product)
Impact modification mechanisms
Crystallinity and morphology (homogeneity, crystallinity, degradation, internal stress, material form, presence of imperfections on the surface and within the bulk of a material)
Effect of material composition (binder, fillers (their type, hardness, shape, and particle size distribution), interaction of matrix and fillers, crosslink density, plasticizers, impact modifiers, foaming agents, residual solvents), concentrations of additives
Polymer blends (components of the blend and compatibilizers)
Effect of processing on impact strength
Selection of impact modifiers for different polymers
Selection of impact modifiers for different end-products
Durability of impact modification

Groups of products, which consume most impact modifiers
Adhesive, sealant, hotmelt, pressure-sensitive, bookbinding
Aerospace aviation
Automotive – body panel, accessories, under-the-hood, bumper, motor hosing
Coatings, paints
Cosmetics – fragrance caps, packaging
Electrical – connectors, computer housing, conduit, switch, insulation, TV, monitor, phone
Engineering plastics
Furniture also garden
Golf balls
Healthcare – medical gloves, medical device, drapery, intravenous bag, respiratory
Houseware – household dinnerware, cabinets, small appliance, flowerpot, refrigerator
Molded parts – containers, handle, grip
Packaging - meat casing, trays, meat, pouches, stretch, milk, tape, cling
Pharmaceutical – drug delivery, packaging
Pipes and tubes, hose, fitting, fuel line
Playground running track
Profiles - Windows and doors, fence, deck, rail
Roads, pavement, asphalt modification
Roofing roof sheet, roof covering, corrugated sheet, membrane
Seals gaskets
Sporting – ski booth
Wire and cable