Handbook of Curatives and Crosslinkers

Handbook of Curatives and Crosslinkers

Author: George Wypych
ISBN 978-1-927885-47-5

Published Jan 2019
Pages: 258+vi

This book contains information on additives which convert soluble monomer, prepolymer, or polymer to the insoluble polymer network popularly known as thermosetting polymer. The additives which cause these changes include crosslinkers and curatives. Both types of additives are discussed in separate chapters of the book because they substantially differ in substrates which they convert. Curatives usually react with low molecular monomers, prepolymers, or oligomers whereas crosslinkers are frequently used to convert polymers. Both sections of the book have similar structure in which effect of additives is presented, including evaluation of chemical and physical properties of curatives or crosslinkers, selection of crosslinkers and curatives for specific polymers, the mechanisms of their action, parameters of crosslinking or curing process, and their effect on the properties of the converted polymers.  Crosslinker chapter contains information on 57 polymers and curative chapter on 13 polymers.

There is a substantial difference in application of both types of additives. Curatives are in common use in many industrial products manufactured on a large scale, such as for example adhesives, sealants, coatings, inks, explosives, propellants, or foams. They are also used in some emerging products such as optoelectronics, shape-memory applications, light-emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, self-healing materials, etc. 

Crosslinkers are also used in the typical industrial processing methods including encapsulation of solar cells, vulcanization, adhesives, foams, roofing, etc. But their strength and future are more focused on emerging applications such as drug release, artificial muscles in microdevices, autonomous shape-memory actuators, hygienic textiles, membranes, scaffolds, recycling, sensors, tissue adhesives or wound dressing, just to mention some.

Both groups of additives are very important in industrial application and we are hoping that this volume will find broad readership, especially considering that it is the first book ever published on this subject in English literature.

Readers of this book may find interesting that Databook of Curatives and Crosslinkers is published at the same time to provide information on both commercial and generic chemical products used as curatives and crosslinkers. The two books offer comprehensive information on the subject not found in any other source.

The table of contents includes details of coverage.

1 Introduction

2 Crosslinkers
2.1 Chemical Composition and Properties
2.2 Polymers and Their Crosslinkers
2.2.1 Acrylamide
2.2.2 Acrylics
2.2.3 Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, NBR
2.2.4 Agar
2.2.5 Alkyd resin
2.2.6 Biopolymers
2.2.7 Bromobutyl rubber
2.2.8 Butyl rubber
2.2.9 Cellulose acetate butyrate
2.2.10 Cellulose acetate propionate
2.2.11 Chitosan
2.2.12 Chlorinated polyethylene
2.2.13 Chloroprene
2.2.14 Cyanoacrylate
2.2.15 Epoxidized natural rubber
2.2.16 Ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer, EPDM
2.2.17 Epoxy resin
2.2.18 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer
2.2.19 Fluoroelastomer
2.2.20 Gelatin
2.2.21 Guar gum
2.2.22 Hydrogenated nitrile rubber
2.2.23 Hyperbranched polymer
2.2.24 N-isopropylacrylamide
2.2.25 Liquid crystalline elastomers
2.2.26 Natural rubber
2.2.27 Phenolic resin
2.2.28 Poly(2-oxazoline)
2.2.29 Polyamide
2.2.30 Polybenzimidazole
2.2.31 Poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene fumarate)
2.2.32 Poly(butylene terephthalate)
2.2.33 Polycaprolactone
2.2.34 Polycarbonate
2.2.35 Polydimethylsiloxane
2.2.36 Polyetheretherketone
2.2.37 Polyetherketoneketone
2.2.38 Polyetherimide
2.2.39 Polyethylene
2.2.40 Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)
2.2.41 Polyimide
2.2.42 Polymethylmethacrylate
2.2.43 Poly(methylmethacrylate-co-hydroxyethyl acrylate)
2.2.44 Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)
2.2.45 Poly(phenylene sulfide)
2.2.46 Polypropylene
2.2.47 Polystyrene
2.2.48 Polystyrene-co-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)
2.2.49 Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate)
2.2.50 Polysulfone
2.2.51 Polyurethane
2.2.52 Polyvinylalcohol
2.2.53 Protein
2.2.54 Silicone rubber
2.2.55 Styrene-butadiene rubber
2.2.56 Sulfonated polyetheretherketone
2.2.57 Sulfonated polysulfone 106
2.3 Parameters of Crosslinking
2.3.1 Activation energy
2.3.2 Concentration of crosslinker
2.3.3 Conversion degree
2.3.4 Glass transition temperature
2.3.5 Melting temperature
2.3.6 Radiation dose
2.3.7 Temperature
2.3.8 Thickness of a part
2.3.9 Time
2.3.10 Viscosity
2.4 Effect of Crosslinkers on Properties
2.4.1 Adhesion
2.4.2 Antibacterial properties
2.4.3 Biocompatibility
2.4.4 Cell size
2.4.5 Compression set
2.4.6 Compressive strength
2.4.7 Contact angle and surface energy
2.4.8 Crosslink density
2.4.9 Crosslinking kinetics
2.4.10 Crystallization temperature
2.4.11 Crystalline structure
2.4.12 Crystallinity
2.4.13 Cytotoxicity
2.4.14 Foam morphology
2.4.15 Friction
2.4.16 Gel content
2.4.17 Grafting
2.4.18 Hardness
2.4.19 Hydrophilicity
2.4.20 Impact strength
2.4.21 Miscibility
2.4.22 Molecular weight
2.4.23 Morphology
2.4.24 Photo and thermal actuation
2.4.25 Recycling
2.4.26 Swelling
2.4.27 Tear strength
2.4.28 Tensile strength
2.4.29 Thermal conductivity
2.4.30 Thermal stability
2.4.31 Vulcanization rate
2.4.32 Water uptake

3 Curatives
3.1 Chemical Composition and Properties
3.2 Polymers and Their Curatives
3.2.1 Acrylics
3.2.2 Alginates
3.2.3 Bromobutyl rubber
3.2.4 Cyanate resin
3.2.5 Epoxy resins
3.2.6 Epoxy-novolac
3.2.7 Hydroxyl terminated azido polymer
3.2.8 Nonisocyanate polyhydroxyurethane
3.2.9 Phthalonitrile resin
3.2.10 Polyimide
3.2.11 Polysiloxane
3.2.12 Polyurethane
3.2.13 Resorcinol
3.3 Parameters of Curing
3.3.1 Activation energy
3.3.2 Component ratio
3.3.3 Conversion degree
3.3.4 Glass transition temperature
3.3.5 Melting point
3.3.6 Temperature
3.3.7 Thickness
3.3.8 Time
3.3.9 Viscosity
3.4 Effect of Curatives on Properties
3.4.1 Acid rain
3.4.2 Adhesion
3.4.3 Cell morphology
3.4.4 Diffusion
3.4.5 Electrical resistivity
3.4.6 Flame retardancy
3.4.7 Flexibility
3.4.8 Flexural strength
3.4.9 Fracture5
3.4.10 Gel fraction and time
3.4.11 Glass transition temperature
3.4.12 Healing
3.4.13 Impact strength
3.4.14 Morphology
3.4.15 Optical properties
3.4.16 Reaction order and rate
3.4.17 Shape memory
3.4.18 Storage stability
3.4.19 Stress relaxation
3.4.20 Tensile strength
3.4.21 Thermal conductivity
3.4.22 Thermal stability
3.4.23 Toughness
3.4.24 Transparency
3.4.25 Wettability