Handbook of Antioxidants

Handbook of Antioxidants

Author: George Wypych
ISBN 978-1-927885-59-8

Publication date:  January 2020
First Edition
Number of pages 238+vi


Handbook of Antioxidants contains information on both natural and man-made antioxidants available in natural products and added to numerous industrial applications. The book contains 5 chapters, each discussing different aspect of phenomena occurring when materials are exposed to ambient air which contains oxygen, ozone, singlet oxygen, and many other oxidizing species (radicals).

The introduction includes discussion of general concepts related to antioxidants and their application. This is followed in Chapter 2 by information on existing natural and synthetic antioxidants which are presented in the form of tables characterizing their general properties and applications.

Chapter 3 contains information on the physics and chemistry of oxidation and antioxidation, including the influence of UV radiation. In this chapter, peculiarities of oxidation and its prevention by antioxidants are discussed for different groups of antioxidants. In total, 25 groups of antioxidants are discussed in separate sections of this chapter. The focus of the evaluation of research findings is on the mechanism of action of antioxidants, their stability, and eventual methods of its improvement.

A separate discussion of the effects of oxidation and photooxidation on living cells is included in Chapter 4. In the introduction, the differences and similarities between the behavior of polymers and livings things and their use of antioxidants are briefly outlined. The opening is followed by separate sections discussing oxidation phenomena in microorganisms, plants, fish, animals, and humans.

Chapter 5 constitutes the technological part of the book, which includes the analysis of progress and applications of antioxidants in different polymers and rubbers. In total, 66 polymers are discussed in separate sections of this chapter. The main subjects of this discussion include mechanisms of degradation and its prevention by antioxidants. Selection of the most suitable antioxidants and methods of their use constitutes one of the main subjects of discussion. This part of the book heavily relies on patent literature in addition to the scientific findings. The emphasis is given to the most recent applications rather than a historical review of applications.

This book is an excellent companion to the Databook of Antioxidants which has also been published recently. Both books supplement each other without repeating the same information – one contains data another theory, mechanisms of action, practical effects and implications of application.

The information contained in both books is essential in medicine, pharmaceutical science and technology, automotive industry, aerospace, oil industry, polymers and plastics, rubber, food preservation, cosmetics, natural oil production, lubrication, and many product groups derived from polymers and rubber.

1 Introduction
2 3 Typical Groups of Antioxidants
2.1 Acids and their esters
2.2 Algae
2.3 Amines
2.4 Anthocyanidins
2.5 Ascorbates
2.6 Benzofuranones
2.7 Benzimidazoles
2.8 Benzoquinones
2.9 Biopolyphenols
2.10 Curcumin
2.11 Coumarin
2.12 Enzymes
2.13 Extracts
2.14 Flavonoids
2.15 Graphene
2.16 Hydrazide metal deactivators
2.17 Hydroquinidines
2.18 Hydroquinone
2.19 Hydroxylamines
2.20 Isoflavones
2.21 Lignanamide
2.22 Liposomes
2.23 Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants
2.24 Oil-derivatives
2.25 Peptides
2.26 Phenolics
2.27 Phosphites, diphosphite, and diphosphonites
2.28 Polyphenols
2.29 Stilbene derivatives
2.30 Sulfur-containing compounds
2.31 Terpenoids
2.32 Tocopherols
3 Physics and Chemistry of Oxidation and Antioxidants
3.1 Acids
3.2 Amines
3.3 Anthocyanidins
3.4 Ascorbates
3.5 Benzofuranones
3.6 Benzimidazoles
3.7 Benzoquinones
3.8 Curcumin
3.9 Coumarin
3.10 Enzymes
3.11 Flavonoids
3.12 Graphene
3.13 Hydroquinones
3.14 Hydroxylamines
3.15 Isoflavones
3.16 Lignanamide
3.17 Oil components
3.18 Peptides
3.19 Phenolics
3.20 Phosphites
3.21 Polyphenols
3.22 Stilbene derivatives
3.23 Sulfur-containing compounds
3.24 Terpenoids
3.25 Tocopherols
4 Oxidation in Living Cells
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Microorganisms
4.3 Plants
4.4 Fish
4.5 Animals
4.6 Humans
5 Prevention of Oxidation of Selected Polymers and Rubbers
5.1 ABS (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)
5.2 AK (alkyd resin)
5.3 C (cellulose)
5.4 CA (cellulose acetate)
5.5 CAR (carrageenan)
5.6 CHI (chitosan)
5.7 CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose)
5.8 CN (cellulose nitrate)
5.9 COC (cyclic olefin copolymer)
5.10 CPE (chlorinated polyethylene)
5.11 CPVC (chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride))
5.12 CR (polychloroprene)
5.13 CY (cyanoacrylate)
5.14 EC (ethyl cellulose)
5.15 ECTFE (poly(ethylene-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene))
5.16 EP (epoxy resin)
5.17 EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer)
5.18 EPR (ethylene-propylene rubber)
5.19 EVAc (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer)
5.20 EVOH (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer)
5.21 GEL (gelatin)
5.22 HDPE (high-density polyethylene)
5.23 LDPE (low-density polyethylene)
5.24 LLDPE (linear low-density polyethylene)
5.25 NBR (acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer)
5.26 PA (polyamide)
5.27 PANI (polyaniline)
5.28 PB (polybutylene)
5.29 PBD (polybutadiene)
5.30 PC (polycarbonate)
5.31 PCL (poly(ε-caprolactone))
5.32 PDL (polylysine)
5.33 PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane)
5.34 PEEK (polyetheretherketone)
5.35 PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate))
5.36 PEX (silane-crosslinkable polyethylene)
5.37 PFPE (perfluoropolyether)
5.38 PHB (poly(3-hydroxybutyrate))
5.39 pHEMA (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate))
5.40 PI (polyimide)
5.41 PIB (polyisobutylene)
5.42 PIP (polyisoprene)
5.43 PK (polyketone)
5.44 PLA (poly(lactic acid))
5.45 PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate)
5.46 PP (polypropylene)
5.47 PPG (poly(propylene glycol))
5.48 PPS (poly(p-phenylene sulfide))
5.49 PPy (polypyrrole)
5.50 PR (proteins)
5.51 PS (polystyrene)
5.52 PSR (polysulfide)
5.53 PSU (polysulfone)
5.54 PU (polyurethane)
5.55 PVAl (poly(vinyl alcohol))
5.56 PVB (poly(vinyl butyrate))
5.57 PVC (poly(vinyl chloride))
5.58 PVP (poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone))
5.59 SBC (styrene-butadiene block copolymer)
5.60 SBR (poly(styrene-co-butadiene))
5.61 SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer)
5.62 SEBS (styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene triblock copolymer)
5.63 SIS (styrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymer)
5.64 ST (starch)
5.65 UHMWPE (ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene)
5.66 XG (xanthan gum)