Handbook of Adhesion Promoters, 2nd Ed.

Handbook of Adhesion Promoters, 2nd Ed.

Author: George Wypych
ISBN 978-1-77467-018-7

Pages 322+vi
Figures 154
Published Jan. 2023


Adhesion promoters form a significant group of additives, without, which many industrial products cannot perform according to requirements. The knowledge on this subject mostly related to silanes, which form the most widely used group of these additives, is frequently based on the book which was published at the beginning of 1980s by a scientist who developed many silanes used until today. Since then, many new additives were introduced into the market. Most of these new additives are not based on silanes but on one of over 30 chemical groups of chemical compounds needed for a variety of products in which silanes do not function, are too expensive, or better performance can be achieved with these new additives.

This book fills the existing gap in the literature, which still lacks the most recent comprehensive review of current options and knowledge. Handbook of Adhesion Promoters contains 10 chapters, each discussing essential aspects of the application of adhesion promoters. The known mechanisms which belong to one of 13 groups outline principles of use, action, and application of these additives. This chapter is followed by the discussion of mechanisms that cause adhesion loss, such as corrosion, delamination, detachment, liquid penetration, and peeling.

Surface condition and its treatment are discussed regarding surface treatment by different methods (cleaning, mechanical, plasma, microwave, flame, corona discharge, laser, UV, and chemical modification), which are used in practical applications. All these are illustrated with practical examples.

Chapter 5 gives formulations of typical primers used in the application of adhesives and sealants, coatings, coil coatings, cosmetics, dental, leather, metal, optical devices, paper, polymers and plastics, printing, and wood. This chapter contains over 50 primer formulations.

A full chapter is devoted to the subject of polymer modification which can improve adhesion – a method frequently used instead of the addition of adhesion promoters. The properties of (over 30 groups of adhesion promoters and their potential applications are discussed in the chapter devoted to this subject based on published articles, manufacturers’ information, and analysis of patents.

The last three chapters contain information on available evaluation and selection of adhesion promoters that work with different polymers (29), products (28) and help to prevent corrosion. A full list of covered polymers and products is given in the table of contents below.

In addition to the theoretical and practical knowledge required to effectively formulate products used in various applications discussed in this book, there is also available Databook of Adhesion Promoters, which contains data on many most extensively used commercial additives. Both books contain the most recent information available in literature, patents, and published by manufacturers and users of these products.
The Handbook of Adhesion Promoters is an important reference for chemists, engineers, and materials scientists in various industries. It is also suitable as a reference book for advanced graduate students.
It is recommended for readers interested in all aspects of polymers and plastics, with special attention to the development, studies, legislation, and production of adhesives, aerospace, agriculture, automotive, bitumen, ceramic tiles, coated fabrics, coatings and paints, coil coatings, composites, construction, cosmetics, dental, electrodes, electronics, flooring, food applications, inks, laminates, medical, membranes, metal coating, pharmaceutical, roofing, sealants, tires, waterproofing, and wire & cable.

1 Introduction
1.1 Definitions
1.2 History
2 Mechanisms of Adhesion
2.1 Mechanical interlocking
2.2 Surface condition and shape
2.3 Diffusion and entanglement
2.4 Adsorption/interaction
2.5 Acid-base and electrostatic interactions
2.5.1 Acid-base interactions
2.5.2 Electrostatic interactions
2.6 Surface free energy and wetting
2.7 Crystalline properties
2.8 Interphase formation
2.9 Chemical bonding
2.10 Hydrogen bonding
2.11 Reversible hydrolysis
2.12 Microbiological and biological adhesion
2.13 Cellular adhesion
3 Mechanisms of Adhesion Loss
3.1 Corrosion
3.2 Delamination
3.3 Detachment
3.4 Debonding
3.5 Liquid penetration
3.6 Peeling
4 Substrates - Surface Condition and Treatment
4.1 Surface evaluation
4.2 Surface treatment
4.2.1 Cleaning
4.2.2 Mechanical
4.2.3 Plasma
4.2.4 Microwave plasma
4.2.5 Flame
4.2.6 Corona discharge
4.2.7 Laser
4.2.8 UV
4.2.9 Chemical modification
5 Typical Primer Formulations and Applications to Different Substrates
5.1 Adhesives and sealants
5.2 Coatings
5.3 Coil coating
5.4 Cosmetics
5.5 Dental
5.6 Leather
5.7 Metal
5.8 Optical devices
5.9 Paper
5.10 Polymers and plastics
5.11 Printing
5.12 Wood
6 Polymer Modification to Improve Adhesion
6.1 Selection of co-monomers
6.2 Selection of polyols and isocyanates
6.3 Modification of polymers by maleic anhydride
6.4 Modification by epoxy group
6.5 Silane grafting
7 Properties of Adhesion Promoters
7.1 Acrylates
7.2 Amines, amides, aminoamides
7.3 Aryl diazonium salts
7.4 Benzene derivatives
7.5 Carbamic resin
7.6 Chlorinated polyolefins
7.7 Crosslinkers
7.8 Epoxides
7.9 Esters
7.10 Inorganic compounds
7.11 Ionomers
7.12 Isocyanates
7.13 Isocyanurates
7.14 Lignin
7.15 Maleic anhydride modified polymers
7.16 Melamine
7.17 Monomers
7.18 Oligomers
7.19 Phenol novolac resins
7.20 Phosphoric acid esters
7.21 Polymers and copolymers
7.22 Polyols
7.23 Resorcinol
7.24 Rosin
7.25 Silanes
7.26 Silane+silica
7.27 Silane+silicate
7.28 Silane+titanate
7.29 Sucrose derivatives
7.30 Sulfur compounds
7.31 Titanates
8 Selection of Adhesion Promoters for Different Substrates
8.1 ABS
8.2 Alkyd resins
8.3 Cellulose and its derivatives
8.4 Epoxy resin
8.5 Glass
8.6 Metal
8.7 Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)
8.8 Polyamide
8.9 Polyaniline
8.10 Polycarbonate
8.11 Polydimethylsiloxane
8.12 Polyester
8.13 Polyetheretherketone
8.14 Polyethylene
8.15 Polyimide
8.16 Poly(lactic acid)
8.17 Polypropylene
8.18 Polystyrene
8.19 Polysulfide
8.20 Polysulfone
8.21 Polytetrafluoroethylene
8.22 Polyurethane
8.23 Polyvinylalcohol
8.24 Polyvinylbutyral
8.25 Polyvinylchloride
8.26 Poly(p-xylylene)
8.27 Porcelain
8.28 Rubber
8.29 TPO
9 Selection of Adhesion Promoters for Different Products
9.1 Adhesives
9.2 Aerospace
9.3 Agriculture
9.4 Automotive
9.5 Bitumen
9.6 Ceramic tiles
9.7 Coated fabrics
9.8 Coatings and paints
9.9 Coil coatings
9.10 Composites
9.11 Construction
9.12 Cosmetics
9.13 Dental
9.14 Electrodes
9.15 Electronics
9.16 Flooring
9.17 Food applications
9.18 Inks
9.19 Laminates
9.20 Medical
9.21 Membranes
9.22 Metal coating
9.23 Pharmaceutical
9.24 Roofing
9.25 Sealants
9.26 Tires
9.27 Waterproofing
9.28 Wire & cable
10 Adhesion and Corrosion Protection

George Wypych has PhD Eng. The professional expertise includes university teaching (full professor) and research & development (university and corporate). He has published 48 books (PVC Plastisols, Wroclaw University Press; Polyvinylchloride Degradation, Elsevier; Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, Elsevier; Polymer Modified Textile Materials, Wiley & Sons; Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th Edition, ChemTec Publishing; Handbook of Fillers, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Edition, ChemTec Publishing; Recycling of PVC, ChemTec Publishing; Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, Plastics Design Library, Handbook of Solvents, Vol. 1. Properties 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Solvents, Vol. 2. Health & Environment 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Plasticizers, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Antistatics, 1st and 2nd Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Antistatics, 1st and 2nd Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release and Slip Additives, 1st , 2nd and 3rd Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Industrial Solvents in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (two editions), John Wiley & Sons, PVC Degradation & Stabilization, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Editions, ChemTec Publishing, The PVC Formulary, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Editions, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Material Biodegradation, Biodeterioration, and Biostabilization, 1st and 2nd Editions, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Editions, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Polymers, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Editions, ChemTec Publishing, Atlas of Material Damage, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Editions, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Odors in Plastic Materials, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Editions, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Solvents (two editions), ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Blowing and Auxiliary Agents, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents (two editions), ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Green Solvents, ChemTec Publishing (two editions), Self-healing Products (two editions), ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Adhesion Promoters (two editions), ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Surface Modification Additives (two editions), ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Surface Improvement and Modification (two editions), ChemTec Publishing, Graphene – Important Results and Applications, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Curatives and Crosslinkers, ChemTec Publishing, Chain Mobility and Progress in Medicine, Pharmaceutical, Polymer Science and Technology, Impact of Award, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Antioxidants, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Antioxidants, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of UV Stabilizers (two Editions), ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Flame Retardants, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Nucleating Agents, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Flame Retardants, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Nucleating Agents, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Polymers in Electronics, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Impact Modifiers, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Rheological Additives, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Impact Modifiers, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Rheological Additives, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Polymer Processing Additives, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Polymer Processing Additives, ChemTec Publishing, Functional Fillers (two editions), 2 databases (Solvents Database, 1st, 2nd, 3rd Edition and Database of Antistatics 1st and 2nd Edition, both by ChemTec Publishing), and 42 scientific papers and obtained 16 patents. He specializes in PVC, polymer additives, material durability, and the development of sealants and coatings. He was included in the Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, and Who's Who in Engineering, and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition of services to education.