REACH for the Polymer Industry - A Practical Guide

REACH for the Polymer Industry - A Practical Guide

Author: Polymer REACH Consortium
ISBN 9781847356208 

Published: 2012

This book has been produced by the EU Leonardo Project called Polymer REACH. The overall objective of Polymer REACH was to develop an e-learning platform and training materials for the European polymer industry to learn and understand how to manage their obligations under the European legislation - Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). 

This book forms part of the training materials which will complement the industry-specific e-learning platform to enable the polymer industry to learn how to manage their obligations under REACH. The overall impact will be an increase in the knowledge base of the polymer industry on REACH, which will in turn help to increase competitiveness and sustainability of the sector.

This book will be useful to anyone who works with polymers or the chemicals that are used to make polymers, whether they are end-users or suppliers. REACH is affecting everyone concerned with the polymer industry and this book will help them to prepare for the impact and consequences of the REACH legislation.
1 Mechanical Properties of Polymers
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Tensile Strength
1.2.1 Electronic Dynamometer Testing of Tensile Properties
1.3 Flexural Modulus (Modulus of Elasticity)
1.3.1 Torsion Test
1.3.2 Hand Test
1.4 Elongation at Break
1.4.1 Basic Creep Data
1.5 Strain at Yield
1.5.1 Isochronous Stress-strain Curves
1.5.2 Stress-time Curves
1.5.3 Stress-temperature Curves
1.5.4 Extrapolation Techniques
1.5.5 Basic Parameters
1.5.6 Recovery in Stress Phenomena
1.5.7 Stress Relaxation
1.5.8 Rupture Data
1.5.9 Long-term Strain-time Data
1.6 Impact Strength Characteristics of Polymers
1.6.1 Notched Izod Impact Strength
1.6.2 Falling Weight Impact Test
1.6.3 Notch Sensitivity
1.6.4 Falling Weight Impact Tests: Further Discussion
1.6.5 Effect of Molecular Parameters
1.7 Shear Strength
1.8 Elongation in Tension
1.9 Deformation Under Load
1.10 Compressive Set (Permanent Deformation)
1.11 Mould Shrinkage
1.12 Coefficient of Friction
1.13 Fatigue Index
1.14 Toughness
1.15 Abrasion Resistance or Wear
1.16 Effect of Reinforcing Agents and Fillers on Mechanical Properties
1.16.1 Glass Fibres Poly Tetrafluoroethylene
1.16.2 Polyethylene Terephthalate Polyether Ether Ketone Polyimide Polyamide Imide
1.16.3 Calcium Carbonate
1.16.4 Modified Clays
1.16.5 Polymer-silicon Nanocomposites
1.16.6 Carbon Fibres
1.16.7 Carbon Nanotubes
1.16.8 Miscellaneous Fillers/Reinforcing Agents.
1.16.9 Test Methods for Fibre Reinforced Plastics
1.17 Application of Dynamic Mechanical Analysis.
1.17.1 Theory
1.17.2 Instrumentation (Appendix 1)
1.17.3 Fixed Frequency Mode Resonant Frequency Mode Stress Relaxation Mode Creep Mode Projection of Material Behaviour using Superpositioning Prediction of Polymer Impact Resistance Effect of Processing on Loss Modulus Material Selection for Elevated-temperature Applications Storage Modulus Frequency Dependence of Modulation and Elasticity Elastomer Low-Temperature Properties Tensile Modulus Stress-strain Relationships Viscosity Miscellaneous Applications of Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
1.18 Rheology and Viscoelasticity
1.19 Physical Testing of Rubbers and Elastomers
1.19.1 Measurement of Rheological Properties
1.19.2 Viscosity and Elasticity
1.19.3 Brittleness Point (Low-temperature Crystallisation)
1.19.4 Flexing Test
1.19.5 Deformation
1.19.6 Tensile Properties
1.19.7 Mechanical Stability of Natural and Synthetic Lattices
1.19.8 Abrasion Test
1.19.9 Peel Adhesion Test
1.19.10 Ozone Resistance Test
1.20 Physical Testing of Polymer Powders
1.20.1 Ultraviolet and Outdoor Resistance
1.20.2 Artificial Weathering
1.20.3 Natural Weathering
1.20.4 Reactivity
1.20.5 Melt Viscosity
1.20.6 Loss on Stoving
1.20.7 True Density
1.20.8 Bulk Density
1.20.9 Powder Flow
1.20.10 Test for Cure
1.20.11 Electrical Properties
1.20.12 Thermal Analysis
1.20.13 Particle-size Distribution Methods Based on Electrical Sensing Zone (Coulter Principle) Laser Particle Size Analysers Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (Autocorrelation Spectroscopy) Sedimentation. Acoustic Spectroscopy Capillary Hydrodynamic Fractionation Small-angle Light Scattering
1.21 Plastic Pipe Materials
1.22 Plastic Film

2 Thermal Properties of Polymers
2.1 Linear Co-efficient of Expansion
2.2 Mould Shrinkage
2.3 Distortion Temperature
2.3.1 Heat Distortion Temperature at 0.45 MPa (°C)
2.3.2 Heat Distortion Temperature at 1.80 MPa (°C)
2.4 Brittleness Temperature (Low-temperature Embrittlement Temperature)
2.5 Melting Temperature
2.6 Maximum Operating Temperature
2.7 Melt Flow Index
2.8 VICAT Softening Point
2.9 Thermal Conductivity
2.10 Specific Heat
2.10.1 Hot-wire Techniques
2.10.2 Transient Plane Source Technique
2.10.3 Laser Flash Technique
2.10.4 Thermal Diffusivity
2.11 Maximum Filming Temperature
2.12 Heat at Volatilisation
2.13 Glass Transition Temperature
2.13.1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry Theory
2.14 Thermomechanical Analysis
2.14.1 Theory
2.15 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
2.16 Differential Thermal Analysis and 
Thermogravimetric Analysis
2.17 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
2.18 Dielectric Thermal Analysis
2.19 Inverse Gas Chromatography
2.20 Alpha, Beta and Gamma Transitions
2.20.1 Differential Thermal Analysis
2.20.2 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
2.20.3 Dielectric Thermal Analysis
2.20.4 Thermomechanical Analysis
2.20.5 Infrared Spectroscopy

3 Electrical Properties
3.1 Volume Resistivity
3.2 Dielectric Strength
3.3 Dielectric Constant
3.4 Dissipation Factor
3.5 Surface Arc Resistance
3.6 Tracking Resistance
3.7 Electrical Resistance and Resistivity
3.8 Electrical Conductivity
3.9 Electronically Conducting Polymers
3.10 Applications of Dielectric Thermal Analysis

4 Other Physical Properties
4.1 Surface Hardness
4.2 Specific Gravity and Bulk Density
4.3 Gas Barrier Properties
4.4 Optical Properties
4.4.1 Haze, Glass and Surface Roughness
4.4.2 Light Scattering
4.4.3 Optical Properties
4.4.4 Electro-optical Effect
4.4.5 Infrared Optical Properties
4.5 Monitoring of Resin Cure
4.5.1 Thermally Cured Resins Dynamic Mechanical Thermal 
Analysis Application in Resin Curing Dielectric Thermal Analysis Differential Scanning Calorimetry Fibreoptic Sensors to Monitor Resin Cure Thermal Conductivity
4.5.2 Photo-chemically Cured Resins Differential Photo-calorimetry Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Gas Chromatography-based Methods
4.6 Adhesion Studies
4.7 Viscoelastic and Rheological Properties
4.7.1 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
4.7.2 Thermomechanical Analysis

5 Thermal Stability
5.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
5.2 Differential Thermal Analysis
5.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
5.4 Thermal Volatilisation Analysis
5.5 Evolved Gas Analysis
5.6 Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy
5.7 Mass Spectroscopy
5.8 Pyrolysis-Mass Spectrometry
5.9 Effect of Metals on Heat Stability

6 Thermo-oxidative Stability
6.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
6.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
6.3 Evolved Gas Analysis
6.4 Infrared Spectroscopy
6.5 Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
6.6 Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Mass Spectrometry
6.7 Imaging Chemiluminescence
6.8 Pyrolysis-based Techniques

7 Assessment of Polymer Stability
7.1 Light Stability
7.1.1 Ultraviolet Light Weathering
7.1.2 Natural Weathering Tests
7.2 Protective Action of Pigments and Stabilisers
7.2.1 Effect of Pigments
7.2.2 Effect of Carbon Black
7.2.3 Effect of Sunlight on Impact Strength
7.2.4 Effect of Thickness
7.2.5 Effect of Stress during Exposure
7.3 Gamma Radiation
7.4 Electron Irradiation
7.5 Irradiation by Carbon Ion Beam
7.6 Irradiation by Alpha Particles and Protons
7.7 Prediction of the Service Lifetimes of Polymers
7.8 Water Absorption
7.9 Chemical Resistance
7.9.1 Detergent Resistance
7.10 Hydrolytic Stability
7.11 Resistance to Gases
7.12 Resistance to Solvents

8 Selecting a Suitable Polymer
8.1 Selection of a Polymer to be used in the Manufacture of a Battery Case
8.2 Selection of a Polymer that will be in Continuous use at High Temperatures
8.3 Selection of a Polymer with Excellent 
Ultraviolet Stability
Appendix 1 – Instrument Suppliers
Appendix 2 – Mechanical properties of polymers
Appendix 3 – Thermal properties of polymers
Appendix 4 – Electrical properties of polymers
Appendix 5 – Other physical properties
Appendix 6 – Assessment of polymer stability