PVC Formulary, 2nd Edition

PVC Formulary, 2nd Edition

Author: George Wypych
ISBN 978-1-895198-84-3 

Second edition
Published: 2015
Pages: 370
Figures: 130
Tables: 450
The book has five chapters, each containing invaluable information for PVC manufacturers, processors, and users. In the first introductory chapter, the new product development and product re-engineering tools and the market for PVC products are discussed.

In the second chapter, polymer properties determining its proper selection are discussed. Commercial types and grades, polymer forms, and physical-chemical properties of PVC are discussed in detail. All essential information required for the decision-making process is presented in a clear form in order to provide the reader with the necessary data.

The third chapter contains information aiding in the selection of any required additives. Twenty-four groups of additives are used in PVC processing to improve its properties and obtain the set of product characteristics required by the end-user. Similar to the previous chapter, the information is concise but contains much-needed data to aid the reader in product development and reformulation.

The fourth chapter contains about 600 formulations of products belonging to 23 categories derived from characteristic methods of production. Formulations come from patents, publications in journals, and from suggestions of raw material suppliers. A broad selection of formulations is used in each category to determine the essential components of formulations used in a particular method of processing, the most important parameters of successful products, troubleshooting information, and suggestions of further sources of information on the method of processing. This part results from a review of thousands of patents, over two thousands of research papers, and information available from manufacturers of polymers and additives.

The final chapter contains data on PVC and its products. The data are assigned to one of the following sections: general data and nomenclature, chemical composition and properties, physical properties, mechanical properties, health and safety, environmental information, use, and application information. The data are based on information contained in over 1450 research papers and it presents the most comprehensive set of data on PVC ever assembled.

The concept of this and a companion book (PVC Degradation & Stabilization, the new edition will be published in 2015) is to provide the reader with complete information and data required to formulate successful and durable products or to evaluate formulations on the background of compositions used by others. For scientists and students, these two books give a complete set of the most up-to-date information, state-of-the-art, and data required for the development of new ideas and learning from a comprehensive review contributed by the author of 5 books on PVC written in the last 30 years.

Regulatory agencies, consumer groups, and law enforcement agencies will also find this book invaluable because it contains a realistic composition of products produced today, based on broad research of information which no other available source offers.

There were many good books published on PVC in the past which are still in use today. Their main drawback is that they contain information which frequently does not apply to today’s products and thus creates confusion which is avoided with these two books: PVC Degradation & Stabilization and PVC Formulary, which were written with the goal to give the most current information to those who need it today.
1 Introduction
2 PVC Properties
2.1 Commercial types and grades
2.1.1 General purpose resins Suspension Mass
2.1.2 Dispersion resins (emulsion, microsuspension)
2.1.3 Specialty resins Powder process resins Ultrahigh molecular weight resins Absorptive resins Deglossing resins Extender resins
2.1.4 Copolymers VC/VAc copolymers Grafted copolymers
2.2 Forms ready for processing
2.2.1 Powder
2.2.2 Dryblend and pellets
2.2.3 Paste and solution
2.2.4 Latex
2.3 Physical-chemical properties of pure and compounded PVC
2.3.1 Molecular weight and its distribution
2.3.2 Particle size and shape
2.3.3 Porosity
2.3.4 Purity
2.3.5 Density
2.3.6 Crystalline structure, crystallinity, morphology
2.3.7 Thermal properties
2.3.8 Electrical properties
2.3.9 Optical and spectral properties
2.3.10 Shrinkage
2.3.11 Chemical resistance
2.3.12 Environmental stress cracking
2.3.13 Mechanical properties
2.3.14 Other properties of PVC

3 PVC Additives
3.1 Plasticizers
3.2 Fillers
3.3 Pigments and dyes
3.4 Thermal stabilizers
3.5 UV stabilizers
3.6 Impact modifiers
3.7 Antiblocking agents
3.8 Release agents
3.9 Slip agents
3.10 Antistatics
3.11 Flame retardants
3.12 Smoke suppressants
3.13 Lubricants
3.14 Process aids
3.15 Vicat/HDT modifiers
3.16 Foaming agents and promoters
3.17 Antifog agents
3.18 Crosslinking agents
3.19 Adhesion promoters
3.20 Brighteners
3.21 Biocides and fungicides
3.22 Magnetic additives
3.23 Flexibilizers
3.24 Nucleating agents

4 The PVC Formulations
4.1 Blow molding
4.1.1 Bottles and containers
4.1.2 Other products
Conclusive remarks
4.2 Calendering
4.2.2 Floor coverings
4.2.3 Pool liner
4.2.4 Roofing membrane
4.2.5 Sheet
4.2.6 Sponged leather
Conclusive remarks
4.3 Composites
Conclusive remarks 8
4.4 Dip coating
Conclusive remarks
4.5 Extrusion
4.5.1 General section
4.5.2 Blinds
4.5.3 Clear compound
4.5.4 Gaskets
4.5.5 Fencing
4.5.6 Interior profiles
4.5.7 Pipes
4.5.8 Planks
4.5.9 Rigid articles
4.5.10 Sheet
4.5.11 Siding
4.5.12 Tubing
4.5.13 Water stop seal
4.5.14 Window and door profile
4.5.15 Other products
Conclusive remarks
4.6 Fiber and thread coating
4.7 Film production
4.7.1 Film
4.7.2 Food wrap
Conclusive remarks
4.8 Foaming and foam extrusion
Conclusive remarks
4.9 Gel & sealant formulations
Conclusive remarks
4.10 Injection molding
4.10.1 General
4.10.2 Fittings
4.10.3 Toys
4.10.4 Other products
Conclusive remarks
4.11 Joining and assembly
4.12 Lamination
4.13 Metallization
4.14 Powder coating
4.15 Printing
4.16 Rotational molding
4.17 Sintering
4.18 Slush molding
4.19 Solvent casting
4.20 Spraying
4.21 Thermoforming
4.22 Web coating
4.22.1 General
4.22.2 Coated fabrics
4.22.3 Conveyor belts
4.22.4 Flooring
4.22.5 Swimming pool liners
4.22.6 Tarpaulin
4.22.7 Upholstery
4.22.8 Wallcovering
4.22.9 Other products
Conclusive remarks
4.23 Wire & cable
4.23.1 ExxonMobil wire insulation formulas
4.23.2 Traditional lead stabilizers in wire and cable
Conclusive remarks
4.24 General remarks

5 Data
5.1 General data and nomenclature
5.2 Chemical composition and properties
5.3 Physical properties
5.4 Mechanical properties
5.5 Health and safety
5.6 Environmental data
5.7 Use and application data

George Wypych has a Ph. D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research & development. He has published 17 books: PVC Plastisols, (University Press); Polyvinylchloride Degradation, (Elsevier); Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, (Elsevier); Polymer Modified Textile Materials, (Wiley & Sons); Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Handbook of Fillers, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Recycling of PVC, (ChemTec Publishing); Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, (Plastics Design Library), Handbook of Solvents, Handbook of Plasticizers, Handbook of Antistatics, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives (1st and 2nd Editions), PVC Degradation & Stabilization, PVC Formulary, Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization, Handbook of Biodeterioration, Biodegradation and Biostabilization, and Handbook of Polymers (all by ChemTec Publishing), 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability, and the development of sealants and coatings. He is included in the Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, Who's Who in Engineering, and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition for his services to education.