Handbook of Odors in Plastic Materials

Handbook of Odors in Plastic Materials

Author: George Wypych
ISBN 978-1-895198-51-5 

Pages: 214 + viii
Figures: 52
Tables: 23
It is the first book ever written on this important subject. Odor of product may decide whether a product is purchased by customer or not.  Odor can also be important reason for customer complaints and product return. Many leading companies have recognized this as an opportunity and they actively study and modify odors of their products.

Several reasons are behind formation of odors in plastic materials, including 

1. Properties of polymer

2. Use of other materials than polymer, especially materials required in processing (additives)

3. Process parameters and their effect on severity of degradation of components of formulation

4. Exposure to different forms of radiation and oxygen

5. Recycling of polymeric materials

6. Contact with other products

7. Storage

a. Diffusion-related properties

b. Migration-evaporation

c. Storage in the same space

The above reasons are analyzed for different materials to find out the best methods to prevent unwanted odor formation. Three chapters are devoted to the analysis of odor-related matters in different polymers, products, and methods of processing. Thirty seven polymers and forty one product groups are analyzed based on research publications and patents.

Other important chapters discuss mechanism of odor formation and its transport within a material, distinctive odors found in plastic materials, taste, and fogging.

The book also contains information on testing of odor changes, relationship between odor and toxicity, as well as selection of raw materials for fog-free products.

The book also contains information on 17 methods of odor removal (the list of these methods is included in Table of Contents below).

The last three chapters discuss regulations related to odor in products, effects of odors on health and safety, and effect of odors from plastic materials on indoor air quality.

Handbook of Odors in Plastic Materials is needed by anyone interested in plastic materials. The book contains complete information based on hard to find source publications and numerous patents.

1 Introduction 

2 Mechanisms of odor formation and transport

2.1 Volatile chemicals

2.2 Biodegradation

2.3 Effect of temperature and time

2.4 Effect of light exposure

2.5 Effect of gamma-irradiation

2.6 Migration

2.7 Leaching

2.8 Partitioning

2.9 Odor-releasing devices

3 Distinctive odors

3.1 Sweet blossom-like (fruity)

3.2 Grassy

3.3 Liquorice

3.4 Petroleum/phenolic

3.5 “Plastic”

3.6 Medicinal

3.7 Chemical

3.8 Ethanol with fusel oil

3.9 Fatty/Waxy

3.10 Moldy/musty

3.11 Sewer/rotten

3.12 Animal

3.13 Cheesy/buttery

3.14 Smoky, burnt

3.15 Metallic

3.16 Sour or acrid

3.17 Minty

3.18 Coconut

3.19 Cardboard-like

3.20 Mushroom-like

4 Taste 

5 Fogging 

6 Reasons for odor formation in plastic materials

6.1 Effect of polymer

6.2 Effect of additives

6.3 Effect of processing conditions

6.4 Recycling

6.5 Contact with other materials

6.6 Effect of storage conditions

6.7 Effect of humidity 

7 Methods of testing in odor analysis

7.1 Mechanism of smell 208

7.2 Sampling

7.3 Active odor sensing

7.4 Electronic nose

7.5 Odor digitization

7.6 Sensory analysis (Test panel evaluation)

7.7 GC/MS

7.8 GC/olfactometry

7.9 Threshold odor number

7.10 Sensors

7.11 Visualization 

8 Odor in relation to different polymers

8.1 ABS

8.2 Acrylics

8.3 Cellulosic polymers

8.4 Chitosan

8.5 Cyanoacrylate

8.6 Epoxy resin

8.7 Ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer, EPDM

8.8 Ethylene-propylene rubber, EPR

8.9  Ethylene-vinyl acetate, EVA

8.10 Ionomers

8.11 Nitrile rubber

8.12 Polyacrylate

8.13 Polyamide-66

8.14 Polyamine

8.15 Polyaniline

8.16 Polybutadiene

8.17 Polycarbonate

8.18 Polychloroprene

8.19 Polyethylene

8.20 Polyethylene, crosslinked

8.21 Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

8.22 Polyisoprene

8.23 Polyimide

8.24 Polyoxymethylene

8.25 Polyphenylene ether

8.26 Polypropylene

8.27 Polystyrene

8.28 Polysulfide

8.29 Polyurethane

8.30 Polyvinylacetate

8.31 Polyvinylalcohol

8.32 Polyvinylbutyral

8.33 Polyvinylchloride

8.34 Polyvinylchloride, chlorinated

8.35 Polyvinylpyrrolidone

8.36 Rubber

8.37 Silicone 

9 Odor in relation to various products

9.1 Adhesives

9.2 Aerospace

9.3 Alcoholic beverages

9.4 Agriculture

9.5 Automotive materials

9.6 Bottles

9.7 Cementitious materials

9.8 Coated fabrics

9.9 Composites

9.10 Cosmetics

9.11 Defence materials

9.12 Dental materials

9.13 Electronics

9.14 Fibers

9.15 Films

9.16 Flooring

9.17 Foam

9.18 Food

9.19 Footwear

9.20 Fruits

9.21 Gaskets

9.22 Inks

9.23 Landfills

9.24 Laminates

9.25 Medical

9.26 Membranes

9.27 Oil sands

9.28 Paints and coatings

9.29 Pavement

9.30 Pharmaceutical products

9.31 Photographic materials

9.32 Pipes

9.33 Plumbing materials

9.34 Roofing

9.35 Sealants

9.36 Soft drinks

9.37 Tires

9.38 Tubing

9.39 Water

9.40 Wine

9.41 Wire and cable 

10 Effect of processing method

10.1 Blow molding

10.2 Calendering

10.3 Coil coating

10.4 Compression molding

10.5 Dry blending

10.6 Extrusion

10.7 Extrusion coating

10.8 Injection molding

10.9 Jointing

10.10 Rubber processing 

11 Methods of odor removal

11.1 Ozonation

11.2 Oxidation

11.3 Microoxygenation

11.4 Complex formation

11.5 Coagulation

11.6 Degasification

11.7 Biodegradation

11.8 Microorganism enzyme

11.9 Biofiltration

11.10 Photocatalysis

11.11 Activated carbon

11.12 Absecents

11.13 Adsorbents

11.14 Filters

11.15 Scavengers

11.16 Odor-masking

11.17 Odor-stripping 

12 Regulations

13 Health and safety 

14 Indoor air quality

George Wypych studied chemical engineering and obtained Ph. D. in chemical engineering. The professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research &development. He has published 19 books (PVC Plastisols, University Press; Polyvinylchloride Degradation, Elsevier; Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, Elsevier; Polymer Modified Textile Materials, Wiley & Sons; Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Edition, ChemTec Publishing; Handbook of Fillers, 1st and 2nd Edition, ChemTec Publishing; Recycling of PVC, ChemTec Publishing; Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, Plastics Design Library, Handbook of Solvents, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Plasticizers, 1st and 2nd Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Antistatics, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release and Slip Additives, 1st and 2nd Edition, ChemTec Publishing, PVC Degradation & Stabilization, ChemTec Publishing, The PVC Formulary, ChemTec Publishing), Handbook of Material Biodegradation, Biodeterioration, and Biostabilization, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Polymers, ChemTec Publishing, Atlas of Material Damage, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Odors in Plastic Materials, ChemTec Publishing), 2databases (Solvents Database, 1st and 2nd Edition and Database of Antistatics, both by ChemTec Publishing), and  47 scientific papers and obtained 16 patents. He specializes in PVC, polymer additives, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings. He is included in Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, Who's Who in Engineering and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition of services to education.