Atlas of Material Damage

Atlas of Material Damage

Author: George Wypych
ISBN 978-1-895198-48-5 

First Edition
Pages 310 
Chapter 7

Atlas of Material Damage has 464 microscopic pictures, schematic diagrams, and a few graphs, which show how materials fail, how they are produced to not fail, and how they are designed to perform particular functions to make outstanding products. Findings presented by each illustration are fully explained in the text and labeled.

In the near past, products were distinguished by their formulations, which constituted highly guarded commercial secrets and know-how. Today, this is not enough. MATERIALS, TO COMPETE, must have optimal structure and specially designed morphology. This book gives numerous examples of how this special morphology can be achieved in electronics, the plastics industry, the pharmaceutical industry, aerospace, automotive applications, medicine, dentistry, and many other fields (see full list at the end).

It is pertinent from the above that methods described by one branch of industry can be adapted by others. For example, a technology that powers the slow or targeted release of pharmaceutical products can be used successfully to prevent premature loss of vital additives from plastics.

Product reliability is the major aim of technological know-how. Uninterrupted performance of manufactured products at both typical and extreme conditions of their use is the major goal of product development and the most important indicator of material quality.

This book provides information on defects formation, material damage, and the structure of materials that must perform designed functions. The following aspects of material performance are discussed:

1 Effect of composition, morphological features, and structure of different materials on material performance, durability, and resilience
2 Analysis of causes of material damage and degradation
3 Effect of processing conditions on material damage
4 Effect of singular and combined action of different degradants on industrial products
5 Systematic analysis of existing knowledge regarding the modes of damage and morphology of damaged material
6 Technological steps required to obtain specifically designed morphology required for specific performance
7 Comparison of experiences generated in different sectors of industry regarding the most frequently encountered failures, reasons for these failures, and potential improvements preventing future damage

The above information is based on the most recent publications. Only 3% of sources were published before 2000 and about 65% appeared in 2009-2012.

The name “Atlas” was selected to indicate the emphasis of the book on illustrations, with many real examples of damaged products and discussion of the causes of damage and potential for material improvements.

This book should be owned and frequently consulted by engineers and researchers in: adhesives and sealants, aerospace, appliances, automotive, biotechnology, coil coating, composites, construction, dental materials, electronics industry, fibers, foams, food, laminates, lumber and wood products, medical, office equipment, optical materials, organics, metal industry, packaging (bottles and film), paints and coatings, pharmaceuticals, polymers, rubber, and plastics, printing, pulp and paper, ship building and repair, stone, textile industry, windows and doors, wires and cables.

Professors and students in the above subjects will require this book for a complete survey of modern technology.

In 1981, Carl Hanser Verlag published An Atlas of Polymer Damage by Lothar Engel, Hermann Klingele, Gottfried Ehrenstein, and Helmut Schaper. This unique publication became my favorite book, which I have frequently consulted throughout the last thirty years.

Using it I have learned that there are very many applications of this knowledge, such as:
• Materials can be made stronger and more durable with little or no cost by proper use of morphological structure
• In many cases, polymer additives could be eliminated
• Their useful life in product can be extended
• Material damage can be avoided
These and other findings are discussed in this book, which is meant to be easy to read because it is composed of hundreds of pictures and mechanisms of performance, with a little text just to explain what can be learned from the illustrations. Its description is as close to the observations of the original authors as permitted by the integrity of narration since they have the privilege of knowing more because they have seen the information within a broader scope of their research.

I hope this book will have many readers because it opens so many unexploited possibilities to make what we use today much better. Many recently introduced products use these principles. Also, a great deal of research concentrates on using specially developed structural features for the betterment of properties of their materials. Many excellent products of today cannot be made without the application of the knowledge discussed in this book.

Users of the book will find that most of the research included was done between 2009 and today, which underlines the value of these findings, considering that many problems of the past are no longer important today because they were not only solved but already implemented in product manufacture.

My goal was to produce a book which can add value to the previously published volume since so many things have changed in the last thirty years. This book has no boundaries of application because it is clear from the analysis of a large number of research projects that structural knowledge and practical ideas are useful in very different applications.

1 Introduction

2 Material composition, structure, and morphological features
2.1 Materials having predominantly homogeneous structure and composition
2.2 Heterogeneous materials
2.2.1 Crystalline forms and amorphous regions
2.2.2 Materials containing insoluble additives
2.2.3 Materials containing immiscible phases
2.2.4 Composites
2.2.5 Multi-component layered materials
2.2.6 Foams, porosity
2.2.7 Compressed solids
2.3 Material surface versus bulk

3 Effect of processing on material structure
3.1 Temperature
3.2 Pressure
3.3 Time
3.4 Viscosity
3.5 Flow rate (shear rate)
3.6 Deformation
3.7 Orientation

4 Scale of damage – basic concept
4.1 Atomic
4.2 Microscale
4.3 Macroscale

5 Microscopic mechanisms of damage caused by degradants
5.1 Bulk (mechanical forces)
5.1.1 Elastic-brittle fracture
5.1.2 Elastic-plastic deformation
5.1.3 Time-related damage Fatigue Creep
5.1.4 Impact damage
5.1.5 Shear fracture
5.16 Compression set
5.1.7 Bending forces
5.1.8 Anisotropic damage
5.2 Electric forces
5.2.1 Tracking
5.2.2 Arcing
5.2.3 Drying out in batteries
5.2.4 Pin-holes
5.2.5 Cracks
5.2.6 Delamination
5.3 Surface-initiated damage
5.3.1 Physical forces Thermal treatment Process heat Conditions of performance Infrared Frictional heat Low-temperature effects Thermal stresses Radiation Alpha and beta rays Gamma rays Laser beam Cosmic rays Plasma Weathering
5.3.2 Mechanical action Scratching Impact Adhesive failure, sliding, rolling
5.3.3 Chemical reactions Molecular oxygen Ozone Atomic oxygen Sulfur dioxide Particulate matter Other gaseous pollutants
5.4 Combination of degrading elements
5.4.1 Environmental stress cracking
5.4.2 Biodegradation and biodeterioration
5.4.3 Effect of body fluids
5.4.4 Controlled–release substances in pharmaceutical applications
5.4.5 Corrosion
George Wypych has a Ph. D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research & development. He has published 17 books: PVC Plastisols, (University Press); Polyvinylchloride Degradation, (Elsevier); Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, (Elsevier); Polymer Modified Textile Materials, (Wiley & Sons); Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Handbook of Fillers, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Recycling of PVC, (ChemTec Publishing); Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, (Plastics Design Library), Handbook of Solvents, Handbook of Plasticizers, Handbook of Antistatics, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives (1st and 2nd Editions), PVC Degradation & Stabilization, PVC Formulary, Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization, Handbook of Biodeterioration, Biodegradation and Biostabilization, and Handbook of Polymers (all by ChemTec Publishing), 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability, and the development of sealants and coatings. He is included in the Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, Who's Who in Engineering, and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition for his services to education.