Thermal Degradation of Polymeric Materials

Thermal Degradation of Polymeric Materials

Author: K. Pielichowski and J. Njuguna
ISBN 978-1-85957-498-0 

Published: 2005 
306 pages
Thermal degradation of polymeric materials is an important issue from both the academic and the industrial viewpoints. Understanding the thermal degradation of polymers is of paramount importance for developing a rational technology of polymer processing and higher-temperature applications. Controlling degradation requires an understanding of many different phenomena, including chemical mechanisms, the influence of polymer morphology, the complexities of oxidation chemistry, and the effects of stabilisers, fillers and other additives.

This work summarises recent developments in the study of the thermal degradation of polymers. The authors present an overview of thermal degradation mechanisms and kinetics as well as describing the use of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, in combination with mass spectroscopy and infrared spectrometry, to investigate thermal decomposition. These methods have proved useful for defining suitable processing conditions for polymers as well as useful service guidelines for their application.

The authors go on to discuss the thermal degradation of various polymers, copolymers, high-performance plastics, blends, and composites, including polyolefins, styrene polymers, polyvinyl chloride, polyamides, polyurethanes, polyesters, polyacrylates and others.

This book offers a wealth of information for polymer researchers and processors requiring an understanding of the implications of thermal degradation on material and product performance.

1 Introduction
1.1 Thermal Degradation Techniques
1.1.1 Thermogravimetry (TG)
1.1.2 Pyrolysis (Py)
1.1.3 Thermal Volatilisation Analysis (TVA)
1.1.4 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
1.1.5 Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI)
1.1.6 Others
1.2 Ageing and Lifetime Predictions
1.3 Thermal Degradation Pathways
2 Mechanisms of Thermal Degradation of Polymers
2.1 Side-Group Elimination
2.2 Random Scission
2.3 Depolymerisation
3 Thermooxidative Degradation
4 Kinetics of Thermal Degradation
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Kinetic Analysis
5 Polymers, Copolymers, and Blends
5.1 Polyolefins
5.1.1 Polyethylene (PE)
5.1.2 Polypropylene (PP)
5.1.3 Polyisobutylene (PIB)
5.1.4 Cyclic Olefin Copolymers
5.1.5 Diene Polymers
5.2 Styrene Polymers
5.2.1 Polystyrene (PS) and its Chemical Modifications
5.2.2 Styrene Copolymers
5.2.3 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Terpolymer (ABS)
5.2.4 Polystyrene Blends
5.3 Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC)
5.3.1 Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Homopolymer
5.3.2 Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Blends
5.4 Polyamides (PA)
5.4.1 Poly(Ester Amide)s
5.4.2 Liquid-Crystalline Polyamides
5.4.3 Polyamide Blends
5.5 Polyurethanes (PUs)
5.5.1 Thermoplastic Polyurethanes
5.5.2 Polyurethane Foams
5.6 Polyesters
5.6.1 Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET)
5.6.2 Biodegradable Polyesters
5.7 Acryl Polymers
5.7.1 Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA)
5.7.2 Acryl (Co)Polymers
5.7.3 Acrylonitrile-Containing (Co)Polymers
5.8 Others
5.8.1 Poly(Vinyl Acetate) (PVAc)
5.8.2 Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) (PVOH)
5.8.3 Vinylidene Chloride (VDC) Copolymers
5.8.4 Sulfone-Containing Polymers
5.8.5 Sulfide-Containing (Co)Polymers
5.8.6 Poly(Bisphenol-A Carbonate) (PC)
5.8.7 Poly(Butylene Terephthalate) (PBT)
5.8.8 Poly(Ethylene Glycol Allenyl Methyl Ether) (PEGA)
5.8.9 Poly(Ether Ketone)s (PEKs)
5.8.10 Poly(Epichlorohydrin-co-Ethylene Oxide)
6 Natural Polymers
6.1 Starch
6.2 Chitin and Chitosan
6.3 Cellulose
6.4 Lignins
6.5 Poly(Hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs)
6.6 Proteins
6.7 Natural Rubber
6.8 Poly(Hydroxy Acid)s
6.8.1 Poly(L-Lactic Acid) (PLLA)
6.8.2 Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Blends
6.9 Poly(p-Dioxanone) (PPDO)
7 Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites
7.1 Glass-Fibre-Reinforced Composites
7.2 Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Composites
7.3 Unsaturated Polyester Resins Reinforced with Fibres
7.4 Reinforced Polyurethane Composites
7.5 Polyamides with Natural Fibres
7.6 Other Composites
8 Inorganic Polymers
8.1 Polysiloxanes
8.2 Polyphosphazenes
8.3 Polysilazanes and Polysilanes
8.4 Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers
9 High Temperature-Resistant Polymers
9.1 Aromatic Polyamides
9.2 Aromatic Polycarbonates
9.3 Aromatic Polyethers
9.4 Phenylene-Containing Polymers
9.5 Poly(Ether Ether Ketone) (PEEK)
9.6 Polybenzimidazoles (PBIs)
9.7 Polybismaleimides (BMIs)
9.8 Polybenzoxazines
9.9 Other High-Temperature Polymers
9.9.1 Phenolic Resins
9.9.2 Epoxies
9.9.3 Poly(Ether Imide) (PEI)
10 Recycling of Polymers by Thermal Degradation
10.1 Polyolefins
10.2 Polystyrene
10.2.1 Polystyrene in the Melt
10.2.2 Polystyrene in Solution
10.3 Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
10.4 Polyamides
10.5 Natural Polymers
10.5.1 Poly(L-Lactic Acid)
10.5.2 Lignocellulose
10.6 Other Homopolymers
10.7 Mixtures of Polymer Wastes
10.8 Thermal Degradation of Polymeric Materials – Ecological Issues
10.8.1 Disposal Options and Sources of Information
10.8.2 Sustainable Development
11 Thermal Degradation During Processing of Polymers
11.1 Polyethylene
11.2 Polypropylene and its Blends
11.3 Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)
11.4 Other Polymers
12 Modelling of Thermal Degradation Processes
13 Concluding Remarks
14 References
15 References Available from the Polymer Library

Krzysztof Pielichowski is currently an associate professor of polymer science at the Cracow University of Technology. He has written over 80 articles and was awarded the Foundation for Polish Science fellowship in 1996 and the Fulbright fellowship in 2003.

James Njuguna is a Ph.D. student at the City University of London. He was a Marie Curie Fellow at the Cracow University of Technology in 2003/2004, performing research in the area of polymeric nanocomposites.