Plastics and the Environment

Plastics and the Environment

Author: Eleanor Garmson and Frances Gardiner
ISBN 978-1-84735-491-4 

Pages: 142, Hard cover

This multi-authored book - from some of the leading researchers and practitioners on this topic - is a distinctive look at how to maximize profitability through environmental compliance in the plastics supply chain, a topic of great and ever-growing interest in the industry.

This distinguished assembly of authors from across the global - and from both industry and academia - provides the reader with a distinctive perspective on this topic. Plastics and the Environment provide readers with a look into the environmental issues of plastics products throughout the complete product lifecycle - from material selection to product design to recycling.

Topics covered include Plastics Materials and Sustainability, Environmental Design for Plastics Products, Energy Efficiency, Plastics, Recycling and Technology, and Life Cycle Assessment.

1 Developments in Polymer Technology Driven by the Need for Sustainability
1.1 Introduction
1.2 What Drives Developments Forward?
1.3 How can we save the World?
1.4 Getting the Science Right
1.5 Legislation and Design
1.6 New Materials
1.7 New Processes
1.8 Conclusions

2 A Medium Voltage Switchgear Mechanism which is Insensitive to its Environment 
2.1 Introduction 
2.2 Selection of the Most Appropriate Material
2.3 Design of a New Range of Mechanisms
2.4 Environmental Studies
2.5 Material Balance Analysis
2.6 LCA18
2.7 Conclusion.20

3 From Industrial Polymerisation Wastes to High Valued Material: Interfacial Agents for Polymer Blends and Composites based on Chemically Modified Atactic
3.1 Introduction 
3.2 Chemical Modification 
3.3 Role in Heterogeneous Materials Based on Polymers 
3.4 Conclusions and Perspectives 

4 Energy Efficiency Index for Plastic Processing Machines 
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Aim and Benefits of the Energy Efficiency Label
4.3 Definition of Energy Efficiency Labels
4.4 Label Development Process
4.4.1 Define the Kind of Label: Which Type of Label do we Need?
4.4.2 Form a Project Team: Who should be Involved in the Label Development Process? Which Steps have to be Done and When?
4.4.3 Definition of the Product Groups: Which Product Groups/Segments can be Defined and Considered Together?
4.4.4 Definition of Criteria: Which Efficiency Criterion can be used for the Evaluation of the Energy Efficiency?
4.4.5 Developing Measurement Standards: How to Measure the Energy Consumption of the Product?
4.4.6 Calculate the Energy Efficiency Index (EEI) How to Define an EEI?
4.4.7 Classification of Energy Classes: How Can Products be Classified?
4.4.8 Label Design: How the Label is Designed and which Information is Included?
4.4.9 Energy Measurements: How to Provide Data for the Definition of the Measurement Standard and the Definition of the Energy Classes?
4.4.10 Energy Efficiency Improvement: What are Possible Improvement Strategies for a Higher Energy Class?
4.4.11 Label Introduction
4.4.12 Label Monitoring
4.5 Example: Plastic Extrusion Machines
4.5.1 Label Definition and Project Team
4.5.2 Label Development
4.5.3 Energy Efficiency Criteria 
4.5.4 Energy Measurement and Measurement Standard
4.5.5 Energy Efficiency Index
4.5.6 Energy Efficiency Classes
4.5.7 Label Design
4.5.8 Market Introduction and Communication
4.6 Product Improvement and Ecodesign
4.7 Summary

5 Comparative Analysis of the Carbon Footprint of Wood and Plastic Lumber Railway Sleepers in Brazil and Germany 
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Waste Management System
5.2.1 Brazil
5.2.2 Germany
5.3 Railway Sleepers Market
5.3.1 Brazil
5.3.2 Germany
5.4 Scope Definition and Life Cycle Inventory (LCI)
5.4.1 Functional Unit
5.4.2 Intended Audience 
5.4.3 Product Systems and System Boundaries 
5.4.4 Data Collection
5.5 Results 
5.5.1 Brazil
5.5.2 Germany
5.5.3 Scenario Analysis
5.5.4 Brazilian Case
5.5.5 German Case
5.6 Discussions and Conclusions 

6 Perfect Sorting Solutions for Packaging Recycling 
6.1 Post-consumer Polyethylene Terephthalate Through the Ages 
6.2 Bottle Sorting, the First Step in the Recycling Process 
6.3 Quality Improvement and Decontamination during the Flake Washing and Sorting Process 
6.4 Bottle to Bottle Recycling - The Ecological Alternative 

7 UK Household Plastic Packaging Collection Survey 2009
7.1 UK Household Plastics Packaging Recycling Survey Background
7.2 UK Plastic Packaging Consumption Statistics
7.3 Household Plastic Packaging Recycling Rates in 2008
7.4 Plastic Bottle Collection Infrastructure Summary
7.5 Bring Scheme Performance
7.6 Kerbside Scheme Performance
7.7 Reported Perceptions of Running Plastic Bottle Collections
7.8 Collection of Non Bottle Plastics Packaging for Recycling
7.9 Sale of Material
7.10 Planned Developments
7.10.1 Bring Schemes 
7.10.2 Kerbside Schemes 
7.11 Development of Non Bottle Plastics Packaging Collections

8 Vinyl 2010: Experience and Perspectives in Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Sustainable Development
8.1 PVC: Strengths and Concerns
8.2 The Vinyl 2010 Initiative
8.2.1 Vinyl 2010: Foundation, Structure, and Organisation
8.2.2 Commitments Manufacturing Plasticisers Stabilisers Waste Management
8.3 Activities and Achievements of Vinyl 2010 
8.3.1 Manufacturing
8.3.2 Stabilisers 
8.3.3 Plasticisers
8.3.4 Waste Management Collection and Recycling for Specific Applications Mixed PVC Recycling Recovinyl Mechanical Recycling Feedstock Recycling Energy Recovery PVC Waste Statistics Partnership with Local Authorities Other Partnerships
8.4 Lessons Learnt
8.4.1 Manufacturing
8.4.2 Additives
8.4.3 Waste Management
8.4.4 Recycling Technologies
8.5 Future Challenges 
8.6 Conclusions