Stimuli Responsive Drug Delivery SystemsFrom Introduction to Application

Stimuli Responsive Drug Delivery SystemsFrom Introduction to Application

Author: Anil Bajpai, Sandeep Shukla, Rajesh Saini and Atul Tiwari
ISBN 978-1-84735-416-7 

Published: 2010
Pages: 370, Hardcover

Stimuli responsive drug delivery systems have emerged as one of the most innovative classes of polymer materials in modern materials science. The polymer architectures exhibiting a large change in their physicochemical behaviors in response to minor signals from the environments have fabricated potentially useful materials for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. The most advanced stimuli responsive drug delivery systems have also explored a new strategy to design targeted delivery systems to treat complex diseases like cancers and related tumors.

Stimuli Responsive Drug Delivery Systems offers a convincing approach to understanding the basic principles of drug delivery process, their mathematical modeling, different types of drug delivery systems, various polymer systems responsive to stimuli such as swelling, pH, temperature, electric and magnetic fields, chemical agents, and more. The material covered in this book provides a wide spectrum of information - academic, research, and professional - for the biomedical, pharmaceutical and polymer chemistry communities. 

The book also presents the commercial scenario of drug delivery systems and highlights upcoming challenges and existing future prospects of this field. An exhaustive bibliography of the book also enables students and researchers of various disciplines to acquire the additional information they may require.

1. Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Responsive Stimuli-sensitive Materials
1.2.1 Swelling-controlled Systems
1.2.2 Magnetic-sensitive Release Systems
1.3 Concept of Controlled Drug Delivery
1.3.1 Controlled Drug Delivery
1.3.2 Advantages of Controlled Drug Delivery
1.3.3 Types of Controlled Drug Delivery Diffusion-controlled System Reservoir Devices Matrix Devices Laminated Matrix Devices Swelling-controlled Systems Chemically Controlled Systems Matrix with Covalently Attached Drug Devices with Entrapped Drug Other Delivery Systems
1.4 Targeted Drug Delivery
1.4.1 Major Schemes of Targeted Drug Delivery
1.4.2 Types of Targeting Methods
Stimuli Responsive Drug Delivery Systems: From Introduction to Application Physical Targeting Passive Targeting Active Targeting
1.5 Mathematical Modelling of Drug Delivery [80]
1.5.1 Factors Operative in Release Mechanisms
1.5.2 Empirical and Semi-empirical Mathematical Models Peppas Equation Hopfenberg Model Cooney Model Artificial Neural Networks
1.5.3 Mechanistic Realistic Models Theories Based on Fick’s Law of Diffusion Theories Considering Polymer Swelling Theories Considering Polymer Swelling and Polymer and Drug Dissolution Theories Considering Polymer Erosion/ Degradation
1.6 Some Milestones in the Fields of Controlled Drug Delivery
1.7 Future Challenges and Scope
2 pH-Sensitive Release Systems
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Swelling Behaviour of pH-sensitive Hydrogels in Buffer Solution
2.3 Phase Transition Behaviour of pH-responsive Hydrogels
2.4 Types of pH-sensitive Hydrogels
2.4.1 Ionic Hydrogels Anionic Hydrogels Cationic Hydrogels Polyamphoteric Hydrogels
2.4.2 Non-ionic Hydrogels
2.5 Properties of pH-sensitive Hydrogels
2.6 Drug Release Mechanisms from Hydrogel Devices
2.7 Applications of pH-sensitive Hydrogels
2.7.1 Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)
2.7.2 Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)
2.7.3 Chitosan
2.7.4 Alginate
2.7.5 Poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) sodium salt)
2.8 pH-sensitive Hydrogel in Insulin Delivery
2.9 pH-sensitive Copolymers and their Application to Nasal Delivery
2.10 pH-dependent Systems for Glucose-stimulated Drug Delivery
2.11 Application of pH-sensitive Polymers to Colon-specific Drug Delivery
3 Temperature-sensitive Release Systems
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Types of Temperature-sensitive Hydrogels
3.2.1 Negative Temperature-sensitive Hydrogels
3.2.2 Positive Temperature-sensitive Hydrogels
3.2.3 Thermoreversible Gels
3.3 Thermosensitivity
3.4 Phase Transition with LCST and UCST
3.5 Factors Affecting LCST
3.6 Phase Transition Behaviour of Stimuli-responsive Hydrogels

Stimuli Responsive Drug Delivery Systems: From Introduction to Application
3.7 Important Preparation Methods of Temperature-sensitive Hydrogels
3.7.1 Emulsion Polymerisation
3.7.2 Frontal Polymerisation Synthesis of Temperature-sensitive Hydrogels
3.7.3 A Little Introduction of Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisations (ATRP) Techniques
3.8 Delivery of Biologically Active Agents by LCST Hydrogels
3.9 Applications of Temperature-sensitive Hydrogels in Drug Release
3.10 Uses of Thermoreversible Hydrogels
4 Magnetically Responsive Targeted Drug Delivery
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Concept of Magnetic Drug Targeting
4.3 Nanoparticulates in Magnetic Targeted Drug Delivery
4.4 Theory: Magnetic Basics
4.5 Types of Magnetism
4.5.1 Paramagnetism
4.5.2 Ferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism
4.5.3 Antiferromagnetism
4.6 Magnetic Field
4.7 Magnetic Material
4.8 Incorporation of Iron Oxide
4.9 Methods of Incorporation of Iron Oxide
4.9.1 Coprecipitation
4.9.2 Thermal Decomposition
4.9.3 Microemulsions
4.9.4 Miscellaneous
4.10 Advantages of Magnetic-controlled and Targeted Drug Delivery
4.11 Applications of Magnetic-controlled and Targeted Drug Delivery
4.11.1 Drug Delivery to Tumours
4.11.2 MRI Contrast Agents
4.11.3 Hyperthermia
4.11.4 Cell Labelling and Magnetic Separation
4.12 Future Challenges and Prospects
5 Electric Sensitive Release Systems
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Theories of Electrosensitive Release System.
5.2.1 Donnan Equilibrium Theory
5.2.2 Mixture Theory
5.2.3 The Generalised Triphasic Theory
5.2.4 Refined Multieffect-coupling Electric-Stimulus (rMECe) Model Theory and Formulation Boundary and Initial Conditions Discretisation of the Transient Governing Equations of the MECe Model
5.3 Measurement of Bending Angle
5.4 Application of Electrosensitive Release System
6 Swelling-controlled Release Systems
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Swelling Studies
6.2.1 Swelling Experiments
6.2.2 Dynamics of Water Sorption
Stimuli Responsive Drug Delivery Systems: From Introduction to Application
6.2.3 Penetration Velocity Measurement
6.2.4 Network Parameters
6.3 Water in Hydrogels
6.4 Measurement of Swelling Pressure
6.4.1 Calculation of the Swelling Pressure in Equilibrium
6.5 Theories of Swelling
6.5.1 Equilibrium Swelling Theory
6.5.2 Rubber Elasticity Theory
6.5.3 Molecular Theory of Polymer Gels Mesh Chains as the Characteristic Gel Units Star Polymers as the Characteristic Gel Units
6.6 Model of Drug Release from Swellable Polymers
6.6.1 Mathematical Definition of the Swelling-controlled Release Problem
6.6.2 Development of a Mathematical Model for Solvent Transport
6.6.3 Development of Mathematical Model for Drug Transport
6.7 Drug Loading on Swellable Polymers
6.8 Drug Loading into Micelles
6.9 Application of Swelling-controlled Systems
7 Chemical Controlled-release Systems
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Types of Chemical Controlled-release Systems
7.2.1 Molecularly Imprinted Gels
7.2.2 Protein-sensitive Hydrogels Antigen-sensitive Hydrogels Enzyme-sensitive Hydrogels Thrombin-sensitive Hydrogels Lectin-loaded Hydrogels
7.2.3 Ionic-strength-responsive Polymers
7.2.4 Glucose Oxidase-loaded Hydrogels
7.2.5 Glucose-sensitive Release Systems Gel-immobilised Systems Solution-gel Phase Reversible Systems pH-sensitive Glucose Systems Multieffect-coupling Glucose-stimulus (MECglu) Model for Glucose-sensitive Hydrogels
7.2.6 Osmotic Pressure-sensitive Hydrogels
8 State-of-the-Art of Commercially Available Polymer-based Drug-delivery Technologies
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Basic Commercial Ingredients for Drug-delivery Systems
8.2.1 Pluronics®: BASF SE Chemical Company
8.2.2 Tetronics®: BASF SE Chemical Company
8.2.3 Starburst®: Dendritic Nanotechnologies, Inc.
8.2.4 SuperFect®/PolyFect®: QIAGEN Inc.
8.3 Injectable Drug-delivery Systems
8.3.1 Chroniject™: Oakwood Technologies
8.3.2 Zoladex Depot®: AstraZeneca
8.3.3 Lupron Depot®: TAP Pharmaceuticals
8.3.4 Sandostatin LAR®: Novartis
8.3.5 Nutropin Depot®: Genentech, Inc. and Alkermes Inc.
8.3.6 Prolease®: Alkermes Inc.
8.3.7 Medisorb®: Alkermes, Inc.
Stimuli-Responsive Drug Delivery Systems: From Introduction to Application
8.3.8 Medusa®: Flamel Technologies, Inc.
8.3.9 OctoDEX®/SynBiosys®/PolyActive®: OctoPlus, Inc.
8.3.10 Alzamer® Depot™ , ALZA Corporation
8.3.11 Atrigel®: Atrix Laboratories
8.4 Implantable or Ointment-based Drug-delivery Systems
8.4.1 Gliadel Wafer®: Eisai Corporation of North America
8.4.2 VivaGel™: Starphama, Plc
8.4.3 BST-Gel®: BioSyntech, Inc.
8.4.4 Stratus® CS: Dade Behring, Inc.
8.4.5 Evacet®: The Liposome Company, Inc.
8.5 Oral Drug-delivery Products
8.5.1 Pulsincap™: Scherer, Inc.
8.5.2 Geomatrix®: SkyePharma, Plc
8.5.3 Micropump®: Flamel Technologies, Inc.
8.5.4 Renagel®: Genzyme Corporation
8.5.5 Threeform®: Lek Pharmaceutical and Chemical Company