Wood-polymers Composites

Wood-polymers Composites

Author: K. Oksman, M. Sain
ISBN 978-1-4200761-1-0 
Published: 2008 

Wood-polymer composites (WPC) are materials in which wood is impregnated with monomers that are then polymerized in the wood to tailor the material for special applications. The resulting properties of these materials, from lightness and enhanced mechanical properties to greater sustainability, has meant a growing number of applications in such areas as building, construction and automotive engineering. This important book reviews the manufacture of wood-polymer composites, how their properties can be assessed and improved and their range of uses. 

After an introductory chapter, the book reviews key aspects of manufacture, including raw materials, manufacturing technologies and interactions between wood and synthetic polymers. Building on this foundation, the following group of chapters discusses mechanical and other properties such as durability, creep behavior and processing performance. The book concludes by looking at orientated wood-polymer composites, wood-polymer composite foams, at ways of assessing performance and at the range of current and future applications. 

With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Wood-polymer composites will be a valuable reference for all those using and studying these important materials.


K Oksman Niska Luleå University of Technology, Sweden and M Sain University of Toronto, Canada

Raw Materials for Wood-Polymer Composites

C Clemons, USDA Forest Service, USA

- Introduction

- Polymers: structure and properties

- Wood: structure and properties

- References and further reading

Additives for Wood-Polymer Composites

D V Satov, Canada Colors and Chemicals Limited, Canada

- Introduction

- Lubricants and rheology control additives for thermoplastic composites

- Coupling agents

- Stabilizers

- Fillers

- Density reduction additives

- Biocides

- Product aesthetics additives

- Flame retardants and smoke suppressants

- Future trends

- Conclusions

Interactions Between Wood and Synthetic Polymers

K Oksman Niska and A Sanadi, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden

- Introduction

- The interface and interphase in composites

- Wetting, adhesion and dispersion

- Techniques to evaluate interfacial interactions and adhesion

- Improving interface interactions in wood-polymer composites

- Interphase effects on other properties

- Conclusions

- References and further reading

Manufacturing Technologies for Wood-Polymer Composites

D Schwendemann, Coperion Werner & Pfleiderer GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

- Introduction

- Raw material handling

- Compounding technologies

- Pelletizing systems

- Profile extrusion

- Injection moulding

- Sheet extrusion

- Future trends

- References

Mechanical Properties of Wood-Polymer Composites

M Sain and M Pervaiz, University of Toronto, Canada

- Introduction

- Mechanical performance of wood-polymer composites

- General mechanical properties of wood-polymer composites and test methods

- Critical parameters affecting mechanical properties of wood-polymer composites

- Conclusions

- References

Micromechanical Modelling of Wood-Polymer Composites

R C Neagu, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland and E K Gamstedt, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Sweden

- Introduction

- Elastic properties

- Hygroexpansion

- Strength

- Conclusions

- References

Outdoor Durability of Wood-Polymer Composites

N Stark, USDA Forest Service and D Gardner, University of Maine, USA

- Introduction

- Characteristics of raw materials

- Changes in composite properties with exposure

- Methods for protection

- Future trends

- Sources of further information and advice

- References and further reading

Creep Behaviour and Damage of Wood-Polymer Composites

N Marcovich and M I Aranguren, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Argentina

- Introduction

- Viscoelasticity and creep

- Creep in wood-plastic composites

- Creep failure and material damage

- Conclusions and future trends

- References

Processing Performance of Extruded Wood-Polymer Composites

K Englund with M Wolcott, Washington State University, USA

- Introduction

- Current extrusion processing methods for natural fiber thermoplastic composites

- Rheology of a wood fiber-filled thermoplastic

- Commercial wood-polymer composites

- References

Oriented Wood-Polymer Composites and Related Materials

F W Maine, Frank Maine Consulting Ltd, Canada

- Introduction

- Orientation of polymers

- Applications

- Current developments

- Future trends

- References

Wood-Polymer Composite Foams

G Guo, University of Southern California, USA, G Rizvi, University of Ontario Institute of Technology and C B Park, University of Toronto, Canada

- Introduction

- Structure and characterization of wood-polymer composite foams

- Critical issues in production of wood-polymer composite foams

- Fundamental mechanisms in blowing agent-based foaming of wood-polymer composites

- Foaming of wood-polymer composites with chemical blowing agents

- Foaming of wood-polymer composites with physical blowing agents

- Foaming of wood-polymer composites with heat expandable microspheres

- Void formation in wood-polymer composites using stretching technology

- Effects of additives on wood-polymer composite foams

- Summary and future trends

- References

Performance Measurement and Construction Applications of Wood-Polymer Composites

R J Tichy, Washington State University, USA

- Introduction

- Performance measures and building codes

- Wood-polymer composite properties

- Building construction applications

- Conclusions

- References

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Wood-Polymer Composites: a Case-Study

T Thamae and C Baillie, Queens University, Canada

- Introduction: comparing wood-polymer and glass-fibre reinforced polypropylene car door panels

- The life cycle assessment process

- Goal and scope definition

- Inventory

- Impact assessment

- Interpretation

- The possible effect of European Union legislation on end-of-life vehicles

- Conclusions

- Acknowledgements

- References

Market and Future Trends for Wood-Polymer Composites In Europe: The Example Of Germany

M Carus and C Gahle, nova-Institut and H Korte, Innovationsberatung Holz & Fasern, Germany

- Introduction

- The development of the European market: the example of Germany

- The most significant wood-polymer composite products in the European market

- Future trends: markets

- Future trends: processing and materials

- Conclusions

- Wood-polymer composite codes, standards, research and manufacturing in Europe

- The nova-Institut and Innovationsberatung Holz und Fasern

- Examples of wood polymer-composite products

- References

Improving Wood-Polymer Composite Products: A Case Study

A Klyosov, MIR International Inc., USA

- Introduction: wood-polymer composite decking

- Brands and manufacturers

- Improving the performance of wood-polymer composite decking

- Conclusions

- References

K. Oksman, Luea University of Technology, Sweden

M. Sain, University of Toronto, Canada