Selection of Polymeric Materials

Selection of Polymeric Materials

Author: Alfredo Campo
ISBN 978-0-8155-1551-7 

How to Select Design Properties from Different Standards

Published: 2008
Pages  253 pp, Hardback, 159 Illustrations
Today engineers, designers, buyers and all those who have to work with plastics face a dilemma. There has been a proliferation of test methods by which plastic properties are measured. The property data measured by these test methods are not identical and sometimes have large differences. How are engineers, designers, buyers going to decide the type and resin grade and their property data? Which are the valid test methods? The right plastic property data are the difference between success and failure of a design, thus making the property selection process critical. For the first time, this book provides a simple and efficient approach to a highly complex and time-consuming task. There are over 26,000 different grades of polymers and millions of parts and applications, further adding to the difficulty of the selection process.

Selection of Polymeric Materials steers engineers and designers onto the right path to selecting the appropriate values for each plastic property. A large amount of property information has been provided to teach and assist the plastic part designer and others in selecting the right resin and properties for an application. Various standards including ASTM, ISO, UL, and British Specifications have been discussed to help the readers in making sound decisions.

• A simple and efficient approach to a highly complex and time-consuming task.
• Allows engineers to select from various standards including ASTM, ISO, UL, and British Specification.
• Presents information on properties such as tensile strength, melt temperature, continuous service temperature, moisture exposure, specific gravity and flammability ratings.
• Tried and true values narrow myriad choices down quickly for readers.

1. Polymeric Materials and Properties
1.1 Tensile Stress-Strain Comparison Graphs
1.2 Property Data Information for Polymeric Materials
1.3 Material Selection Guidelines
1.4 Polymeric Materials Specifications
1.5 Testing Polymeric Materials
1.6 The Need for Uniform Global Testing Standards
1.7 Polymeric Materials
1.8 Polymeric Materials Background
1.9 Polymeric Materials Families
1.10 Classification of Polymeric Materials by Performance
1.11 Types of Thermoplastic Molecular Structures
1.12 Manufacturing of Polymers
1.13 Polymeric Materials Compounding Process
1.14 Basic Characteristics of Polymeric Materials
1.15 Families of Thermoplastic Polymers
1.16 Families of Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE)
1.17 Families of Thermoset Polymers

2. Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Materials
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Comparison Tables of Mechanical Properties
2.3 Comparison Between ASTM and ISO Mechanical Test Standards
2.4 Tensile Testing
2.5 Tensile Strength Effects Caused by Cross-Head Speeds
2.6 Molecular Orientation Effects
2.7 Compounding Processes & Properties of Glass Reinforced Polymers
2.8 Fiber Glass Effects on Polymeric Material Properties
2.9 Tensile Stress Effects Caused by Fiber Glass Orientation
2.10 Weld Line Effects on Injection Molded Products
2.11 Temperature Effects on the Behavior of Polymeric Materials
2.12 Effects to Nylon Properties Caused by Moisture
2.13 Flexural Testing
2.14 Compressive Strength Testing
2.15 Shear Strength Testing
2.16 Stress-Strain Curves, Load Type Comparison
2.17 Creep, Rupture, Relaxation, and Fatigue
2.18 Tensile Creep Testing
2.19 Flexural Creep Testing
2.20 Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves
2.21 Procedure for Applying Creep Modulus
2.22 Creep Rupture
2.23 Stress Relaxation
2.24 Fatigue Characteristics
2.25 Impact Strength Testing
2.26 Impact Fracture Mechanism
2.27 Pendulum Impact Tests
2.28 Gardner Drop Weight Impact Testing
2.29 Falling Weight Tower Impact Testing
2.30 Instrumented Impact Testing
2.31 Instrumented High-Speed Horizontal Plunger Impact Tester
2.32 Instrumented Impact Testing (Dynatup®)
2.33 Product Design Analysis Using Dynatup® Test Data
2.34 Miscellaneous Impact Testing

3. Thermal Properties of Polymeric Materials
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Thermal Properties for Elevated Temperatures
3.3 Introduction to ISO Testing Standards
3.4 Melting Temperature Testing
3.5 Vicat Softening Temperature Testing
3.6 Glass Transition Temperature Testing
3.7 Brittleness Temperature Testing
3.8 Continuous Service Temperature Testing
3.9 UL Temperature Index
3.10 Heat Deflection Temperature Testing
3.11 Soldering Heat Resistance Performance
3.12 Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion Testing
3.13 Thermal Conductivity Testing
3.14 Melt Flow Rate
3.15 Melt Mass-flow Rate Testing
3.16 Capillary Rheometer Relative Melt Viscosity Testing
3.17 Relative Melt Viscosity vs. Shear Rate Graph
3.18 Flammability Characteristics of Polymeric Materials
3.19 UL 94 Flammability Testing
3.20 UL Horizontal Burn Testing
3.21 UL Vertical Burn Testing, UL 94-V0, UL 94-V1, UL 94-V2
3.22 UL Vertical Burn Testing, UL 94-5V, UL 94-5VA, UL 94-5VB
3.23 Limited Oxygen Index Testing
3.24 Smoke Generation Testing
3.25 Self and Flash Ignition Temperature Testing

4. Electrical Properties of Polymeric Materials

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Thermoplastic Polymers Characteristics for Electrical Applications
4.3 Thermoset Polymers Characteristics for Electrical Applications
4.4 ASTM/UL Electrical Properties of Polymeric Materials
4.5 Introduction to ISO/IEC Electrical Test Methods
4.6 Electrical Terminology
4.7 Electrical Insulation Properties
4.8 Electrical Resistance Properties
4.9 Dielectric Constant Testing
4.10 Dissipation Factor Testing
4.11 Volume Resistivity Testing
4.13 Dielectric Strength Testing
4.14 Hot-Wire Ignition Testing
4.15 High-Amperage Arc Ignition Testing
4.16 High-Voltage Arc Tracking Rate
4.17 Arc Resistance Testing
4.18 Comparative Track Index Testing
4.19 Glow Wire Testing
4.20 Hot Mandrel Testing
4.21 Underwriter’s Laboratories Yellow Cards
4.22 How to Read and Interpret the "UL Yellow Card"
4.23 "UL Electrical Insulation Systems"

5. Physical Properties of Polymeric Materials
5.1 Introduction
5.2 ASTM Physical Properties of Polymeric Materials
5.3 ASTM and ISO Comparison of Physical Testing Standards
5.4 Specific Gravity Testing
5.5 Density Gradient Testing
5.6 Optical Testing Properties
5.7 Water Absorption Testing
5.8 Surface Hardness Testing
5.9 Abrasion Resistance Testing
5.10 Tear Resistance
5.11 Coefficient of Friction Testing
5.12 Mold Shrinkage Testing

6. Microbial, Weather, Chemical Resistance of Polymeric Materials
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Fungal Resistance Testing
6.3 Bacteria Resistance Testing
6.4 Fungi and Bacteria Outdoor Exposure Resistance Limitations
6.5 Weathering Tests for Polymeric Materials
6.6 Accelerated Weathering Testing
6.7 Exposure to Fluorescent UV Lamp, Condensation
6.8 Accelerated Weather Testing, Weather Ometer®
6.9 Exposure to Carbon Arc Light % Water Testing
6.10 Exposure to Xenon Arc Light and Water Testing
6.11 Outdoor Weathering Testing
6.12 Chemical Resistance Testing of Polymeric Materials
6.13 Chemical Resistance Tables of Delrin Homopolymer Acetal
Acronyms for Polymeric Materials
Common Acronyms
Process Acronyms
Reinforcements and Fillers Acronyms
English and Metric Units Conversion Guide
DuPont (retired), Delaware, U.S.A.
E. Alfredo Campo is a retired DuPont senior engineer with extensive experience and in-depth technical knowledge of polymer technology. He is a widely published author of books, articles, and papers. His latest book is The Complete Part Design Handbook for Injection Molding of Thermoplastics.