Graphene – Important Results and Applications

Graphene – Important Results and Applications

Author: George Wypych
ISBN 978-1-927885-51-2

Pages: 316 + iv
Figures 228
Tables 4

Potential applications of graphene are the subject of many papers. On ScienceDirect alone, over 5000 papers were published in 2016, and numerous patents followed.

The main subject of the book is an extensive account of up-to-date findings in methods of production of graphene and its derivatives, commercial manufacture of graphene, research results and data on properties of graphene, graphene dispersion, chemical modification, and the most recent developments in various applications of graphene.

Eleven groups of production methods of graphene and its derivatives are discussed in length, providing how-to-do and what-to-expect analysis and comparison of potential properties of the resultant products. Some of the methods are unique to graphene manufacture, but many of them already existed and were adapted to the use in the graphene manufacture. Chapter 4 contains a short review of the capabilities of the significant graphene manufacturers from several leading geographical locations.

The properties of graphene and its derivatives are already quite well investigated, and they are the subject of Chapter 5. Discussion topics are grouped into 15 sections each devoted to different characteristic properties of graphene which make it so useful in various applications. Chemical modification can change many properties of graphene, and this is discussed in Chapter 7.

Dispersion of carbon-based fillers is always the primary problem and factor of their performance. In the case of graphene, three significant factors affect its dispersion namely, its hydrophobic nature, the tendency to re-agglomerate, and 2D very elastic structure of particles. The effect of these and other factors and methods of effective dispersion are the main points of discussion.

Twenty-three groups of products in which graphene or its derivatives can be used are discussed at length in Chapter 8. This chapter is full of ideas for new product development and the possible improvement of existing products. This chapter, like other chapters, is generously illustrated with examples which may help in finding creative applications. More information on the book composition can be found in the detailed table of contents. 

The book begins with an analysis of the impact of the Nobel Prize on the development of interest in graphene and compares the justification of the Nobel Prize Committee with actual developments in its science and technology. In Chapter 1, the announcement of the Nobel Prize Committee is analyzed to list the most important reasons for the selection of the topic of the Prize. In Chapter 2, the effect of Nobel Prize on the development of graphene technology is analyzed based on frequency and geographical spread of publications and patents in the years prior and after the Prize was awarded. Also, topics of publications are examined by comparing their frequency before the Prize with current research.

1 Introduction. Nobel Prize Laureates and Award Justification
2 Analysis of Publications
3 Production of Graphene and its Derivatives
3.1 Chemical vapor deposition
3.2 Molecular beam epitaxy
3.3 Ion implantation
3.4 Desorption of silicon from silicon carbide
3.5 Graphite oxidation
3.6 Reduction of graphene oxide
3.7 Ultrasound-assisted exfoliation
3.8 Electrochemical process
3.9 Detonation reaction
3.10 Graphite intercalation
3.11 Agricultural waste processing
4 Manufacturers of Graphene, Its Grades, and the Production Output
5 Unique Nature of Graphene. Research Results
5.1 Morphology and thickness
5.2 Crystallinity
5.3 Mechanical properties
5.4 Tribological properties
5.5 Electronic properties
5.6 Electrical properties
5.7 Magnetic properties
5.8 Thermal stability
5.9 Thermal conductivity
5.10 Optical properties
5.11 Barrier properties
5.12 Sound and microwave absorption
5.13 Rheological properties
5.14 Chemical resistance
5.15 Antibacterial properties
6 Dispersion of Graphene in the Polymer Matrix
6.1 Methods of dispersion
6.2 Stability of dispersions
6.3 Dispersion morphology
6.4 Spatial configurations of graphene sheets
6.5 Ribbon size
6.6 Results in different matrices
7 Chemical Modifications and Their Applications
7.1 Functional groups and side chains
7.2 Doping
7.3 Edge functionalization
8 Current Developments in Some Applications of Graphene
8.1 Aerogels
8.2 Antibacterial surfaces
8.3 Batteries
8.4 Biomedical applications
8.5 Catalysis
8.6 Composites
8.7 Concrete admixtures
8.8 Corrosion protection
8.9 Drug delivery systems
8.10 Encapsulation
8.11 Energy storage
8.12 Inks and 3D prints
8.13 Lubrication
8.14 Organic light-emitting diodes
8.15 Packaging
8.16 Self-healing materials
8.17 Semiconductors
8.18 Sensors
8.19 Sporting equipment
8.20 Transparent functional materials
8.21 Thermal management solutions
8.22 Water treatment
8.23 Wearable electronics
9 Comparison of Justification of Nobel Prize by the Selection Committee with Actual Results of Research Reported