PVC Compound and Processing

PVC Compound and Processing

Author: Stuart G. Patrick
ISBN 978-1-85957-472-0 

Published: 2004
pages: 176
The PVC global market size in 2000 was around 25,400 kt. Pipes and fittings constitute the largest volume application at 36% of the marketplace with profiles at 13%. Thus, PVC is one of the most widely used plastics in the world. This overview covers the basics of PVC formulation and processing, while extending the information to include the latest developments in materials and technology. This makes the report accessible and useful to all levels of the industry.

PVC is of low thermal stability and high melt viscosity. Therefore, it is combined with a number of additives to varying properties to suit different end-use applications. PVC formulation is key to processing a success. This review looks at the different additive types available, their uses and new developments. The main groups of additives are: heat stabilisers, plasticisers, impact modifiers, process aids, lubricants, fillers, flame retardants, pigments, blowing agents, biocides, viscosity modifiers, antistatic agents, antioxidants, UV absorbers, antifogging agents and bonding agents. Formulation changes are being driven by legislation banning heavy metals and possible health risks from additives such as phthalate plasticisers.

PVC compounding methods are considered here. There are many different ways of processing PVC: extrusion, calendering, injection moulding, extrusion/stretch blow moulding, spreading/coating, rotational moulding, dip moulding and slush moulding. The technology is covered in this report. Fabrication and treatment of PVC are also reviewed, for example, surface modification to enhance biocompatibility and reduce plasticiser migration.

The PVC industry has been under intense scrutiny in recent years due to health and environmental safety concerns. The industry has responded proactively to these pressures by reviewing practice and undertaking research into ways of reducing all types of risk. Sustainability issues have also been addressed and many different recycling projects have been set up. The legislation is driving this work forward with EU Directives on such issues as disposal of end-of-life vehicles.

Over 400 references from recent literature are cited in the review, which is accompanied by abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database, to facilitate further reading. A subject index and a company index are included.

1 Introduction
1.1 Polyvinyl Chloride
1.2 PVC Compounds
1.3 History
2 PVC Industry
2.1 PVC Resin
2.1.1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture
2.1.2 Homopolymers
2.2 Copolymers and Terpolymers
2.3 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC)
2.4 PVC Resin Characterisation
2.4.1 Molecular Weight
2.4.2 Particle Size
2.4.3 Bulk Powder Properties
2.5 Key Additives
2.6 Processing Techniques
2.7 Industry Outline
2.7.1 PVC Resin Producers
2.7.2 PVC Compounders
2.7.3 Global Market by Application
3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC
3.1 VCM and PVC Production
3.2 Plasticisers
3.2.1 Phthalates
3.2.2 Adipates
3.3 Heat Stabilisers
3.3.1 Lead Based Stabilisers
3.3.2 Organotin Stabilisers
3.3.3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols
3.3.4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO)
3.4 Waste Management
3.4.1 Incineration
3.4.2 Landfill
3.4.3 Recycling
4 Additives, Formulations, and Applications
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Heat Stabilisers
4.2.1 Solid Stabilisers
4.3 Plasticisers
4.3.1 Phthalate Alternatives
4.3.2 Polymeric Plasticisers
4.4 Multifunctional Additives
4.5 Property Modifiers
4.5.1 Process Aids
4.5.2 Impact Modifiers
4.5.3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification
4.5.4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications
4.6 Lubricants
4.7 Fillers
4.7.1 Calcium Carbonate
4.7.2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites
4.7.3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre
4.7.4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers
4.7.5 Other Fillers
4.7.6 Nanocomposites
4.8 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS)
4.9 Pigments
4.10 Biocides
4.11 Blowing Agents
4.12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers
4.13 Other Additives for PVC-P
4.13.1 Antistatic Agents
4.13.2 Viscosity Modifiers
4.13.3 Antifogging Agents
4.13.4 Bonding Agents
4.14 Formulations
4.14.1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing
4.14.2 Crosslinked PVC
4.14.3 Medical and Food Contact Use
4.14.4 Membranes
5 Compounding and Processing Technology
5.1 Compounding
5.1.1 Dry Blend Mixing
5.1.2 Melt Compounding
5.1.3 Liquid PVC Blending
5.2 Processing
5.2.1 Gelation
5.2.2 Extrusion
5.2.3 Injection Moulding
5.2.4. Extrusion Blow Moulding
5.2.5 Orientation
5.2.6 Calendering
5.2.7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes
6 Fabrication and Treatment
6.1 Thermoforming
6.2 Surface Modification Processes
6.3 Coatings
6.4 Adhesion
7 PVC and Sustainable Development
7.1 Waste Management
7.1.1 PVC Rich Waste - Mechanical Recycling
7.1.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling
7.1.3 Incineration/Energy Recovery
8 Conclusions
Additional References
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database
Subject Index
Company Index

Stuart Patrick is a Chartered Chemist and a Member of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He is chairman of the PVC Committee of the IOM3. His career has included 23 years in the PVC Additives business of Akzo Nobel/Akcros Chemicals, where he has been involved in technical services, research, and development. From 2001 to 2003, he was the Global Research and Development Manager. Current projects include sustainability research at IPTME, Loughborough.