Atlas of Material Damage, 2nd Edition

Atlas of Material Damage, 2nd Edition

Author:George Wypych
ISBN 978-1-927885-25-3 (hard cover); 978-1-927885-26-0 (E-PUB)
Published: 2017 January
Pages: 334
Printed in color
Hardcover and epub
Figures: 495 

Atlas of Material Damage has microscopic pictures, schematic diagrams, and a few graphs, which show how materials fail, how they are produced to not fail, and how they are designed to perform functions to make outstanding products. All this is presented in color print, which emphasize peculiarities of morphology. Findings presented by each illustration are fully explained in the text and labeled.

In the near past, products were distinguished by their formulations, which constituted highly guarded commercial secrets and know-how. Today, this is not enough. MATERIALS, TO COMPETE, must have optimal structure and specially designed morphology. This book gives numerous examples of how this special morphology can be achieved in electronics, the plastics industry, the pharmaceutical industry, aerospace, automotive applications, medicine, dentistry, and many other fields (see full list at the end).

It is pertinent from the above that methods described by one branch of industry can be adapted by others. For example, technology that powers the slow or targeted release of pharmaceutical products can be used successfully to prevent premature loss of vital additives from plastics.

Product reliability is the major aim of technological know-how. Uninterrupted performance of manufactured products at both typical and extreme conditions of their use is the major goal of product development and the most important indicator of material quality.

This book provides information on defects formation, material damage, and the structure of materials that must perform designed functions. The following aspects of material performance are discussed:

  1. Effect of composition, morphological features, and structure of different materials on material performance, durability, and resilience
  2. Analysis of causes of material damage and degradation
  3. Effect of processing conditions on material damage
  4. Effect of singular and combined action of different degradants on industrial products
  5. Systematic analysis of existing knowledge regarding the modes of damage and morphology of damaged material
  6. Technological steps required to obtain specifically designed morphology required for specific performance
  7. Comparison of experiences generated in different sectors of industry regarding the most frequently encountered failures, reasons for these failures, and potential improvements preventing future damage


The above information is based on the most recent publications. Only 2% of sources were published before 2000 and most appeared recently.

The name “Atlas” was selected to indicate the emphasis of the book on illustrations, with many real examples of damaged products and discussion of the causes of damage and potential for material improvements. 

This book should be owned and frequently consulted by engineers and researchers in: adhesives and sealants, aerospace, appliances, automotive, biotechnology, coil coating, composites, construction, dental materials, electronics industry, fibers, foams, food, laminates, lumber and wood products, medical, office equipment, optical materials, organics, metal industry, packaging (bottles and film), paints and coatings, pharmaceuticals, polymers, rubber, and plastics, printing, pulp and paper, ship building and repair, stone, textile industry, windows and doors, wires and cables.

Professors and students in the above subjects will require this book for a complete survey of modern technology.

1             Introduction

2             Material Composition, Structure and Morphological Features
2.1          Materials having predominantly homogeneous structure and composition
2.2          Heterogeneous materials
2.2.1       Crystalline forms and amorphous regions
2.2.2       Materials containing insoluble additives
2.2.3       Materials containing immiscible phases
2.2.4       Composites
2.2.5       Multi-component layered materials
2.2.6       Foams and porosity
2.2.7       Compressed solids
2.3          Material surface versus bulk

3             Effect of Processing on Material Structure
3.1          Temperature
3.2          Pressure
3.3          Time
3.4          Viscosity
3.5          Flow rate (shear rate)
3.6          Deformation
3.7          Orientation

4             Scale of Damage. Basic Concept
4.1          Atomistic
4.2          Microscale
4.3          Macroscale

5             Microscopic Mechanisms of Damage Caused by Degradants
5.1          Bulk (mechanical forces)
5.1.1       Elastic-brittle fracture
5.1.2       Elastic-plastic deformation
5.1.3       Time-related damage  Fatigue  Creep
5.1.4       Impact damage
5.1.5       Shear fracture
5.1.6       Compression set
5.1.7       Bending forces
5.1.8       Anisotropic damage
5.2          Electric forces
5.2.1       Tracking
5.2.2       Arcing
5.2.3       Drying out in batteries
5.2.4       Pinholes
5.2.5       Cracks
5.2.6       Delamination
5.3          Surface-initiated damage
5.3.1       Physical forces  Thermal treatment  Radiation  Weathering
5.3.2       Mechanical action  Scratching  Impact  Adhesive failure, sliding, and rolling
5.3.3       Chemical reactions  Molecular oxygen  Ozone  Atomic oxygen  Sulfur dioxide  Particulate matter  Other gaseous pollutants
5.4          Combination of degrading elements
5.4.1       Environmental stress cracking
5.4.2       Biodegradation and biodeterioration
5.4.3       Effect of body fluids
5.4.4       Controlled-release substances in pharmaceutical applications
5.4.5       Corrosion

George Wypych has a Ph. D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research & development. He has published 14 books: PVC Plastisols, (University Press); Polyvinylchloride Degradation, (Elsevier); Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, (Elsevier); Polymer Modified Textile Materials, (Wiley & Sons); Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Handbook of Fillers, 1st and 2nd Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Recycling of PVC, (ChemTec Publishing); Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, (Plastics Design Library), Handbook of Solvents, Handbook of Plasticizers, Handbook of Antistatics, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives, PVC Degradation & Stabilization, The PVC Formulary (all by ChemTec Publishing), 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings. He is included in the Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, Who's Who in Engineering, and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition for his services to education.