Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives

Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives

Author: George Wypych
ISBN 978-1-895198-45-4 

Second Edition

Pages: 340
Tables: 116
Figures: 130

This handbook is the first ever book written on the subject of antiblocking, release, and slip additives, which are of high industrial importance. The second edition has included all new information which became available in the last six years since the publication of the first edition.
Eighteen chemical families form a core of industrial developments, which resulted in a large number of commercial products used by industry as antiblocking, release, and slip additives.
These additives are used in the production of materials from 44 generic families of polymers. Polymers containing antiblocking, release, and slip additives are processed by 17 groups of processing methods. The processing methods are used by 29 industries.
Information on the use of additives in various polymers is divided into the following sections: Types and concentrations, Effect on polymer and/or other additives, and Typical formulations.
Information on the use of additives in various products is divided into the following sections: Types and concentrations, Reasons for use, Advantages and disadvantages of additive use, Effect on product properties, and Examples of formulations.
Processing methods are discussed using the following breakdown: Types and concentrations, Effect on the process, Effect on product properties, Advantages and disadvantages of additive use, Examples of formulations.
A complete analysis of literature and patents available from the first use of these additives until now is included in the book. The book considers all essential aspects of chemistry, physical properties, influence on properties of final products, formulations, methods of incorporation, analysis, and effects on health and environment.
The book contains 18 chapters, each addressing the specific aspect of properties and applications of antiblocking, release, and slip agents. In addition, a separate publication is available (Database of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Agents), which is a database of commercial and generic materials used as antiblocking, release, and slip additives in various (not only polymeric) materials.
The combination of the data and the comprehensive analysis of the performance of these materials form very important source of information for industry, research, academia, and legislature. These publications should be considered by any industrial, university, governmental, and public library because of widespread applications of these additives in the industry and everyday life.

1 Introduction  
1.1 Historical developments  
1.2 Expectations from commercial additives  
1.3 Definitions  
1.4 Classification 

2 Generic Types 
2.1 Introduction 
2.2 Characteristic properties of commercial additives 
2.2.1 Antiblocking agents 
2.2.2 Mold release agents 
2.2.3 Slip agents 

3 Standard Methods of Control
3.1 Adhesives 
3.2 Floor coverings 
3.3 Footwear and walkway surfaces 
3.4 Geosynthetics 
3.5 Leather and coated fabrics  
3.6 Lubricants  
3.7 Medical  
3.8 Paints and Coatings 
3.9 Paper  
3.10 Plastics and rubber 
3.11 Roads and pavement 
3.12 Sport equipment 
3.13 Textiles 

4 Transportation and Storage 
4.1 Transportation  
4.2 Storage 

5 Mechanisms of Action  
5.1 Antiblocking agents  
5.2 Slip agents  
5.3 Release agents 

6 Compatibility and Performance 

7 Diffusion and Migration
7.1 Diffusion 
7.2 Distribution of additive in bulk and on surface 
7.3 How mobility affects additive selection?  
7.4 Additive transfer to material in contact
7.5 Additive loss 

8 Interaction with Other Components of Formulation 
8.1 Fillers 
8.2 Other components of formulation 
8.3 Synergy between surface additives 
8.4 Other properties 

9 Processing and Additive Performance 

10 Effect on Product Properties
10.1 Mechanical properties
10.2 Mar and abrasion  
10.3 Shrinkage and warpage 
10.4 Blocking force 
10.5 Adhesion to mold and demolding  
10.6 Coefficient of friction 
10.7 Residues on molds 
10.8 Residues on molded parts  
10.9 Optical properties  
10.10 Rheological properties  
10.11 Electrical properties  
10.12 Structure and orientation  
10.13 Thermal aging 
10.14 UV radiation 
10.15 Effect on other properties 

11 Use in Specific Polymers 

11.1 ABS 
11.2 Acrylics 
11.3 Bromobutyl rubber 
11.4 Cellulose acetate 
11.5 Cellulose, acetate, butyrate and propionate 
11.6 Cellulose nitrate
11.7 Chlorinated polyvinylchloride 
11.8 Chlorosulfonated polyethylene 
11.9 Copolymers 
11.10 Cyanoacrylates  
11.11 Ethyl cellulose  
11.12 Ethylene-propylene-diene copolymer, EPDM 
11.13 Ethylene-propylene rubber, EPR 
11.14 Epoxy resin  
11.15 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, EVA 
11.16 Ionomers  
11.17 Nitrile rubber 
11.18 Polyamide 
11.19 Polybutadiene 
11.20 Polycarbonate 
11.21 Polyester  
11.22 Polyetherimide 
11.23 Polyethylene 
11.24 Polyimide 
11.25 Polylactide 
11.26 Polymethylmethacrylate  
11.27 Polyoxymethylene 
11.28 Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) 
11.29 Poly(phenylene ether)  
11.30 Polypropylene 
11.31 Polystyrene 
11.32 Polysulfone 
11.33 Poly(phenylene sulfide) 
11.34 Polyvinylacetate  
11.35 Polyvinylalcohol  
11.36 Polyvinylbutyral  
11.37 Polyvinylchloride  
11.38 Polyurethanes  
11.39 Proteins  
11.40 Rubber, natural  
11.41 Silicone 
11.42 Styrene-butadiene rubber 
11.43 Styrene-butadiene-styrene 
11.44 Starch 

12 Use in Industrial Products 
12.1 Adhesives and sealants 
12.2 Aerospace  
12.3 Agriculture 
12.4 Automotive applications  
12.5 Bottles 
12.6 Ceramic materials 
12.7 Composites 
12.8 Coated fabrics 
12.9 Cosmetics  
12.10 Dental materials  
12.11 Electronics 
12.12 Fibers  
12.13 Film 
12.14 Food 
12.15 Foams  
12.16 Gaskets 
12.17 Inks, varnishes, and lacquers 
12.18 Medical devices  
12.19 Membranes 
12.20 Paints and coatings 
12.21 Pharmaceutical products 
12.22 Photographic materials 
12.23 Pipes 
12.24 Road construction  
12.25 Roofing materials 
12.26 Synthetic paper 
12.27 Tires  
12.28 Toys 
12.29 Wire & cable 
13 Various Processing Methods  
13.1 Blow molding 
13.2 Calendering 
13.3 Coextrusion 
13.4 Compression molding  
13.5 Compounding (mixing) 
13.6 Dip coating 
13.7 Dryblending 
13.8 Extrusion 
13.9 Extrusion blow molding 
13.10 Injection molding 
13.11 Lithography 
13.12 Printing 
13.13 Reaction injection molding 
13.14 Rotational molding 
13.15 Rubber processing 
13.16 Slip casting 
13.17 Thermoforming 
13.18 Transfer molding 

14 Specialized Analytical Methods 
14.1 Identification  
14.2 Determination of concentration 
14.3 Determination of volatility and molecular motion 
14.4 Study of materials containing additives 

15 Mathematical Modelling 
16 Health, Safety and Environmental Issues 

16.1 Antiblocking agents 
16.1.1 Inorganic 
16.1.2 Organic  
16.2 Release agents 
16.2.1 Fluorocompounds 
16.2.2 Polydimethylsiloxane 
16.2.3 Polymeric waxes  
16.2.4 Other chemical compounds 
16.3 Slip agents 
16.3.1 Acids  
16.3.2 Esters  
16.3.3 Fatty acid amides 
16.3.4 Natural wax 
16.3.5 Salts 

17 Regulations and Data 
17.1 Toxic substance control 
17.2. Carcinogenic effect 
17.3 Workplace exposure limits  
17.4 Food regulatory acts 

18 Personal Protection  
18.1 Clothing 
18.2 Gloves 
18.3 Eye protection 
18.4 Respiratory protection 

George Wypych has a Ph. D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research & development. He has published 17 books: PVC Plastisols, (University Press); Polyvinylchloride Degradation, (Elsevier); Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, (Elsevier); Polymer Modified Textile Materials, (Wiley & Sons); Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Handbook of Fillers, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Recycling of PVC, (ChemTec Publishing); Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, (Plastics Design Library), Handbook of Solvents, Handbook of Plasticizers, Handbook of Antistatics, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives (1st and 2nd Editions), PVC Degradation & Stabilization, PVC Formulary, Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization, Handbook of Biodeterioration, Biodegradation and Biostabilization, and Handbook of Polymers (all by ChemTec Publishing), 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability, and the development of sealants and coatings. He is included in the Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, Who's Who in Engineering, and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition for his services to education.