Plastics in Packaging - Western Europe and North America.

Plastics in Packaging - Western Europe and North America.

Author: Market Report, 2002
ISBN 978-1-85957-329-7 

pages: 144, figures: 24, tables: 51
Packaging is an $800 billion global industry. Flexible packaging types range from bags and bubble wrap to tubes, stand-up pouches and foam cushioning materials. Rigid packaging comprises blisters, bottles, cartridges, clam shells, pallets, trays, etc. Polymers are used in caps and closures, sacks, bags, labels, adhesives, rigid containers, films and other flexibles.

Plastics are the most important material type in the flexible packaging market with over 70% market share in Europe and North America. Packaging is a very important market for thermoplastics, comprising 40% of total demand in Europe and 25% of total demand in North America in 2000.

Plastics have increasingly replaced traditional materials in this sector because of their light weight and superior functionality. In rigid packaging polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has replaced glass in bottles for carbonated drinks, which has moved this resin from a speciality to a commodity plastic. New developments in materials include heat resistant and high barrier plastics which can replace metals and glass in other packaging applications.

However, most of the easy conversions from traditional materials to plastics have now been made. Unless some radical changes occur, such as the packaging of beer in plastic pouches or bottles, the market is likely to grow in line with global GDP.

The five-volume polymers used in packaging are polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and PET. Packaging is the major use of polyethylene and polypropylene. High-density polyethylene is used in applications such as containers, milk and detergent bottles, bags and industrial wrapping. Low-density polyethylene is used for pallet and agricultural film, bags, coatings and containers. Polypropylene is employed in film, crates and microwavable containers. Polystyrene finds use in jewel cases, trays and foam insulation, while PET is used in bottles, film and other food packaging applications.

A variety of speciality materials are used in packaging. New developments include liquid crystal polymers, which are high-temperature resistant materials with excellent barrier properties. Ticona has produced Vectran materials that can be thermoformed and extruded on standard equipment. They are high cost, but the material loading can be much lower than, for example, ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH).

This report includes a description of plastic material types and properties relevant to packaging. Tables of comparative data are found in Chapter 4. Materials are commonly used in combinations in multilayer structures to obtain a set of key properties and to reduce costs. Processing is important to material properties and methods are outlined here.

This clearly written report on Plastics in Packaging provides an overview of the plastic packaging supply chain from materials to disposal. Information is included on market sizes and trends relevant to this chain. It includes a review of key factors affecting the industry, such as the need for recycling, and new developments in plastics used in packaging.

1 Introduction
1.1 The World of Packaging
1.2 Scope of the Report
1.3 Geographical Focus
1.4 Methodology
1.5 Authorship
1.6 Units
2 Executive Summary

3 Materials for Packaging

3.1 High Volume Polymers
3.1.1 Polyethylene
3.1.2 Polypropylene
3.1.3 Polystyrene High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) Syndiotactic Polystyrene (SPS)
3.1.4 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS)
3.1.5 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC}
3.1.6 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
3.2 Specialty Polymers
3.2.1 Specialty Polyesters Glycol Modified PET PEN
3.2.2 Cellulosics
3.2.3 Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymers (EVA)
3.2.4 Polycarbonate (PC)
3.2.5 Polyvinyl Alcohol and Copolymers Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH or PVAL) Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymers (EVOH)
3.2.6 Polyvinylidene Chloride Copolymers (PVDC)
3.2.7 Polyacrylonitrile Copolymers (PAN)
3.2.8 Polyamides (PA)
3.2.8 Cyclic Polyolefins (COC)
3.2.10 Specialty Copolymers Ethylene-Styrene Copolymers Ethylene-Acrylic Copolymers Styrene-Acrylic Copolymers Styrene Block Copolymers (SBC)
3.2.11 Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCP)
3.3 Additives and Ancillaries
3.3.1 Additives Introduction Processing Additives In-Use Enhancement Additives New Additives for Plastics in Packaging
3.3.2 Adhesives Types of Adhesives Applications of Adhesives in Packaging New Developments for Adhesives in the Context of Plastics for Packaging
3.3.3 Coatings Applications of Coatings in Packaging New Developments for Coatings in the Context of Plastics for Packaging
3.4 Alternative Materials and Inter-Materials Competition
3.4.1 Plastics Versus Paper
3.4.2 Plastics Versus Paperboard
3.4.3 Plastics Versus Wood/Fibreboard
3.4.4 Plastics Versus Glass
3.4.5 Plastics Versus Metals
4 Performance Characteristics of Plastics in Packaging

4.1 Physical Properties
4.1.1 Density
4.1.2 Tacticity and Crystallinity
4.1.3 Clarity
4.1.4 Orientation
4.1.5 Flammability
4.1.6 Barrier Properties
4.2 Mechanical Properties
4.2.1 Tensile Strength, Rigidity and Flexibility
4.2.2 Impact Strength
4.3 Thermal Properties
4.3.1 Glass Transition Temperature and Melting Temperature
4.4 Chemical Properties
5 Polymer Conversion Processes

5.1 Overview
5.2 Extrusion and Co-Extrusion
5.3 Injection Moulding
5.4 Rotational Moulding
5.5 Moulding Expanded Polystyrene (EPS)
5.6 Injection Blow Moulding and Extrusion Blowing
5.7 Injection Stretch Blow Moulding
5.8 Film Production
5.8.1 Film Blowing
5.8.2 Film Casting
5.8.3 Calendering
5.9 Thermoforming
5.10 Extrusion Coating
5.11 Foaming
5.12 Form-Fill-Seal (FFS)
5.13 Multilayer and Multimaterial Structures
5.14 New Developments in Conversion
5.15 Ancillary Processes
5.15.1 Labelling
5.15.2 Printing
5.15.3 Closures
5.15.4 Surface Treatment
5.15.5 Metal Barrier Coatings for Films
5.15.6 Silicon Oxide Barrier Coatings for Films
5.15.7 Other Coatings for Films
6 Flexible and Rigid Packaging Applications

6.1 Flexible Packaging
6.1.1 Definition
6.1.2 Types of Flexible Packaging Bags Pouches Stand-up Pouches Retort Pouches Shrink Wrap Stretch Wrap Bubble Wrap Twist Wrap Foams
6.1.3 Future Trends in Flexible Packaging
6.2 Rigid Packaging
6.2.1 Definition
6.2.2 Types of Rigid Packaging Blister Packs Clam Shells Bottles, Jars and Cans Cartridges and Syringes Trays Transport Packaging - Pallets, Pails and Drums Packaging for Electrostatic Discharge Protection
6.2.3 Future Trends in Rigid Packaging
6.3 Hybrid Packaging
6.3.1 Bag in Box
6.3.2 Squeezable, Collapsible Tubes
6.4 Packaging Accessories
7 Current Market Quantification

7.1 Plastics Production and Consumption
7.2 Packaging Markets Size and Growth of Packaging Markets in Europe and USA
7.3 European Plastics for Packaging Market Quantification
7.4 US Plastics for Packaging Market Quantification
7.5 Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Plastic Packaging
7.6 Flexible Packaging Market Quantification
7.7 Rigid Packaging Market Quantification
8 Applications Markets

8.1 Applications
8.1.1 Food
8.1.2 Beverages Water Carbonated Drinks Fruit Juices Beer
8.1.3 Household and Hardware
8.1.4 Personal Care
8.1.5 Healthcare
8.1.6 Industrial Products
8.2 In Use Performance Requirements
8.2.1 Microwavable
8.2.2 Ovenable
8.2.3 Shelf Life
8.2.4 Modified Atmosphere Packaging
8.3 Design and Aesthetics
8.3.1 Decoration and Design
8.3.3 Tamper Evidence
8.3.4 Anti-Counterfeiting
8.3.5 Other Intelligent Packaging
8.3.6 In-Mould Labelling
9 Industry Structure and Value Chain

9.1 Plastics Industry
9.1.1 Polymer Industry Structure by Polymer Polyethylene Polypropylene Polystyrene Polyvinyl Chloride Polyethylene Terephthalate
9.1.2 Interpolymer Competition
9.2 Compounding Industry
9.3 Additives Industry
9.4 Adhesive Industry
9.5 Equipment Industry
9.5.1 Plastics Machinery
9.6 Converting and Packaging Industry
9.6.1 Packaging Industry
9.6.2 Converting Industry
9.7 User Markets/Packers
9.8 Distribution & Retail Sales
10 Regulations and Environmental Issues

10.1 Food Contact
10.2 European Waste and Recycling
10.2.1 Plastics Packaging Waste
10.2.2 Packaging Waste Issue
10.2.1 Legislative Summary The EU Packaging Waste Directive (94/62/EC) Forthcoming Changes to EU Legislation
10.2.2 Plastics Recycling & Recovery Source Reduction
10.3 US Waste and Recycling
10.3.1 Legislative Summary
10.3.2 Plastics Recycling
11 Developments in Plastic Packaging

11.1 New Barrier Materials and Processes
11.2 Oxygen Scavengers
11.3 Nanocomposites
11.4 Metallocene Polymers
11.5 Biodegradable Polymers
11.6 Aliphatic Polyketones
11.7 Liquid Crystal Polymers
11.8 Polyethylene Naphthalate
11.9 New Developments in Films
11.9.1 Smart Films
11.9.2 Oriented Polystyrene (OPS) Films
11.9.3 Microwavable Films
11.9.4 Edible and Soluble Films
11.10 Pouches
11.11 New Developments for Rigid Cups, Trays, And Dishes
11.12 New Developments for Bottles
11.13 Other New Developments for Plastics in Packaging
12 Influences and Trends in Plastics in Packaging to 2005

12.1 The Overall Packaging Market
12.2 The Plastics Packaging Market
12.2.1 Rigid Packaging Trends and Influences
12.2.2 Flexible Packaging Trends and Influences
12.3 Summary of Trends for Polymers Used in Packaging
13 Companies and Associations

13.1 International and National Plastics Industry Associations
13.2 Media

Appendix: Abbreviations & Acronyms

bms is a market research and consultancy organisation which aims to provide actionable marketing information. Richard Beswick has worked in the chemicals and biotechnology sectors and has 22 years of experience in industrial marketing and market research. Dr. Dave Dunn is a senior associate at bms North America with training as a chemist and a background in both industrial and academic circles. He has been a Vice President of Loctite Corporation, a speciality adhesive and sealant Company. The authors are based in Europe and North America respectively, giving them an ideal base for this report.