Handbook of Recycling, 1st Edition

Handbook of Recycling, 1st Edition

Author: Worrell and Reuter
ISBN 9780123964595 

State-of-the-art for practitioners, analysts, and scientists
Key Features

- Portrays recent and emerging technologies in metal recycling, by-product utilization, and management of post-consumer waste

- Uses life cycle analysis to show how to reclaim valuable resources from mineral and metallurgical wastes

- Uses examples from current professional and industrial practice, with policy implications and economics, to present a real-world portrait useful to engineers and professionals as well as academics


In concept, this book is an Encyclopedia-style authoritative description of the various aspects of material reuse and recycling (including technology, policy, economics) by leading authors from around the globe.

This book resolves the problem of there currently (nor published in the past decade) being no single book that provides an authoritative review of the state-of-the-art in recycling. This book should resolve that, by providing a state-of-the-art review of all aspects of recycling.

The author's intention in writing this book was to provide the market with a basic textbook on recycling that could be used by students, scholars, and decision makers, as well as stakeholders in the recycling industry, for the next few years.
List of Contributors
Part I: Recycling in Context
Chapter 1. Recycling: A Key Factor for Resource Efficiency
Chapter 2. Definitions and Terminology
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Defining Recycling
2.3 Materials and Products
2.4 Applying the Product-Centric Approach—Metals
Chapter 3. Recycling in Context
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Metal Recycling Considerations and Technologies
3.3 Defining Recycling Statistics
3.4 Process Efficiencies and Recycling Rate Constraints
3.5 Perspectives on Current Recycling Statistics
3.6 Summary
Chapter 4. Recycling Rare Metals
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Indium
4.3 Other Examples of Rare Metals
4.4 The Distant Future: Georgescu's Last Laugh?
Chapter 5. Theory and Tools of Physical Separation/Recycling
5.1 Recycling Process
5.2 Particle Size
5.3 Pulp Rheology
5.4 Properties and Property Spaces
5.5 Sampling
5.6 Mass Balances and Process Dynamics
5.7 Material Balancing
5.8 Liberation
5.9 Grade-Recovery Curves
Part II: Recycling - Application & Technology
Chapter 6. Recycling of Steel
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Scrap Processing and Material Streams from Scrap Processing
6.3 The Processes Used for Smelting Steel Scrap
6.4 Trends in Quality of the Scrap Available for Steel Production
6.5 Hindrances for Recycling—Tramp Elements
6.6 Purification of Scrap
6.7 To Live with Impurities
6.8 Measures to Secure Sustainable Recycling of Steel
Chapter 7. Copper Recycling
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Raw Material for Copper Recycling
7.3 Processes for Recycling
7.4 Challenges in Copper Recycling
7.5 Conclusions
Chapter 8. Lead Recycling
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The Lead-Acid Battery
8.3 Battery Preprocessing
8.4 Smelting
8.5 Alternative Approaches
8.6 Refining
8.7 Conclusions and Outlook
Chapter 9. Zinc and Residue Recycling
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Zinc Oxide Production from Drosses
9.3 Electric Arc Furnace Dust and Other Pb, Zn, Cu-containing Residues
9.4 Zinc Recycling from Copper Industry Dusts
9.5 Fuming of Slags from Lead Metallurgy
Chapter 10. Recycling of Rare Metals
10.1 Precious Metals
10.2 Rare Earth Metals
10.3 Electronic Metals
10.4 Refractory Metals (Ferro-alloys Metals, Specialty Metals)
10.5 Other Metals
Chapter 11. Recycling of Lumber
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Background
11.3 Key Issues in Post-use Management of Wood
11.4 Case Study Scenarios
11.5 Summary
Chapter 12. Paper Recycling
12.1 Important Facts about Paper Recycling
12.2 Stock Preparation for Paper Recycling
Chapter 13. Plastic Recycling
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Use of Plastics
13.3 Plastic Recycling
13.4 Mechanical Recycling
13.5 Impact of Recycling
13.6 Conclusions and Outlook
Further Reading
Chapter 14. Glass Recycling
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Types of Glass
14.3 Glass Manufacture
14.4 Glass Recovery for Reuse and Recycling
14.5 Reuse of Glass
14.6 Closed-Loop Recycling of Glass
14.7 Environmental Benefits of Closed-Loop Recycling of Glass
14.8 The Growth of Glass Recycling
14.9 Open-Loop Glass Recycling
14.10 Conclusions
Chapter 15. Textile Recycling
15.1 Introduction
15.2 The Recycling Effort
15.3 Export of Secondhand Clothing
15.4 Conversion to New Products
15.5 Conversion of Mattresses
15.6 Conversion of Carpet
15.7 Wipers
15.8 Landfill and Incineration
15.9 Diamonds
15.10 Summary
Chapter 16. Cementitious Binders Incorporating Residues
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Clinker Production: Process Flow, Alternative Fuels and Alternative Raw Materials
16.3 From Clinker to Cement: Residues in Blended Cements
16.4 Alternative Cements for the Future: Reducing the CO2 Footprint while Incorporating Residues
16.5 Conclusions
Chapter 17. Industrial By-products
17.1 What is a By-product?
17.2 Major By-products and Their Generic Properties
17.3 Where and How to Use By-products
17.4 Technical and Environmental Requirements
17.5 Concluding Remarks
Chapter 18. Recovery of Metals from Different Secondary Resources (Waste)
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Production of Ferroalloys from Waste
18.3 Recycling Concepts for Rare Earth Containing Magnets
Chapter 19. Recycling of Carbon Fibers
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Carbon Fiber Recycling Processes
19.3 Composites Remanufacturing
19.4 Applications for Recycled Carbon Fibers and Composites
19.5 Life-Cycle Analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers
19.6 Further Challenges
19.7 Conclusions
Chapter 20. Recycling of Construction and Demolition Wastes
20.1 Introduction
20.2 The Existing Low-Cost Housing Technologies
20.3 Earth/Mud Building
20.4 Prefabrication Method
20.5 Lightweight Foamed or Cellular Concrete Technology
20.6 Stabilized Earth Brick Technology
20.7 Case Study
20.8 Cost-Effectiveness of Using Low-Cost Housing Technologies
20.9 Recycling Technologies and Practice
20.10 Conclusion
Chapter 21. Recycling of Packaging
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Packaging Waste
21.3 Composition
21.4 Recovery and Recycling
21.5 Recovery and Collection Schemes
21.6 Concluding Remarks
Further Reading
Chapter 22. Material-Centric (Aluminum and Copper) and Product-Centric (Cars, WEEE, TV, Lamps, Batteries, Catalysts) Recycling and DfR Rules
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Material-Centric Recycling: Aluminum and Copper
22.3 Product-Centric Recycling: Complex Sustainability Enabling and Consumer Products
22.4 Recycling Complex Multimaterial Consumer Goods: A Product-Centric Approach
22.5 Automotive Recycling/Recycling of ELVs Including Automotive Battery Recycling
22.6 Recycling of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
22.7 Recycling of Lighting
22.8 Technology for Recycling of Batteries and Catalysts
22.9 Design for Recycling and Resource Efficiency
Chapter 23. Separation of Large Municipal Solid Waste
23.1 Introduction
23.2 The Circular Process for Large Municipal Solid Waste
23.3 The Preconditions for Sorting Large Municipal Solid Waste
23.4 Collection System of Large Municipal Solid Waste
23.5 Sorting of Large Municipal Solid Waste
23.6 Sorting Installation
23.7 Sorting Process
23.8 Recycling Efficiency
23.9 The Future
Chapter 24. Recovery of Construction and Demolition Wastes
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Existing Recycled Aggregate Concrete Applications
24.3 Existing Concrete Recycling Methods
24.4 Cost and Benefit Analysis
24.5 Conclusion
Chapter 25. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Management
25.1 Introduction
25.2 Objectives of WEEE Management
25.3 WEEE Take-Back Schemes
25.4 Long-term Trends
Chapter 26. Developments in Collection of Municipal Solid Waste
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Definition of Municipal Solid Waste
26.3 Quantities of Municipal Solid Waste
26.4 Quality of Municipal Solid Waste
26.5 Management of Municipal Solid Waste
Part III: Strategy and Policy
Chapter 27. From Recycling to Eco-design
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Principle of Material Design for Recycling
27.3 Eco-design Strategies for Recycling
27.4 Is Recycling Really Less Impactful on the Environment?
27.5 Current Limits for Eco-design for Recycling Strategies
27.6 Market Demand
27.7 Conclusion
Chapter 28. Recycling and Labeling
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Functional Needs Analysis
28.3 Bibliographical Research on the Polymer Labeling Processes
28.4 First Results of Detection Tests with Polypropylene Samples
28.5 Conclusion
Chapter 29. Informal Waste Recycling in Developing Countries
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Defining the Informal Sector
29.3 Informal Solid Waste Management
29.4 Informal e-Waste Recycling
Chapter 30. Squaring the Circular Economy: The Role of Recycling within a Hierarchy of Material Management Strategies
30.1 Is a Circular Economy Possible or Desirable?
30.2 Hierarchies of Material Conservation
30.3 When is Recycling Not the Answer?
30.4 Discussion
Chapter 31. The Economics of Recycling
31.1 Introduction
31.2 Economic Trends and Drivers
31.3 Environmental and Social Costs and Benefits
31.4 Economic Instruments
31.5 Conclusions and Discussion
Chapter 32. Geopolitics of Resources and Recycling
32.1 Introduction
32.2 Resources, Scarcity and Geopolitics
32.3 Recycling in the Geopolitical Context
Chapter 33. Recycling in Waste Management Policy
33.1 Introduction
33.2 A Brief History of Waste Management
33.3 Integrating Recycling in Waste Management Policy Design
Chapter 34. Voluntary and Negotiated Agreements
34.1 Introduction
34.2 Experiences in Recycling Policy
34.3 Lessons Learned
Chapter 35. Economic Instruments
35.1 Introduction
35.2 Criteria to Compare Policy Instruments
35.3 Basic Environmental Policy Instruments Aimed at Stimulating Recycling
35.4 Incentives for Upstream Green Product Design
35.5 Multiproduct and Mixed Waste Streams
35.6 EPR and Recycling Certificates
35.7 Durable Goods
35.8 Imperfect Competition in Product and Recycling Markets
35.9 Policy Instruments in an International Market for Waste and Materials
35.10 Recycling and Nonrenewable Resources in a Macro Economic Perspective
35.11 Conclusion
Chapter 36. Information Instruments
36.1 Introduction
36.2 Target Groups/Audience
36.3 Communication Tools
36.4 Messaging: Information and Communication
36.5 Conclusion
Chapter 37. Regulatory Instruments: Sustainable Materials Management, Recycling, and the Law
37.1 Introduction
37.2 Resource Efficiency and Waste Strategy—The Blurb
37.3 The EU Framework Directive on Waste, and Its View on Recovery and Recycling
Appendix 1. Physical Separation 101
A1.1 Breakage
A1.2 Size Classification
A1.3 Screens
A1.4 Dynamic Separators
A1.5 Gravity Separations
A1.6 Water Media Separations
A1.7 Dense Media Separations
A1.8 Flotation
A1.9 Magnetic Separations
A1.10 Eddy Current Separation
A1.11 Electrostatic Separations
A1.12 Sorting
Appendix 2. Thermodynamics 101
A2.1 On the Consumption and Availability of Metals
A2.2 Recycling and Extractive Metallurgy: An Energy Issue
A2.3 The Second Law of Thermodynamics Devil: An Entropy Issue
A2.4 Chemical Thermodynamics and Reaction Equilibrium
A2.5 On the Stability of Oxides and Other Metal-Containing Minerals
A2.6 The Carbon Tragedy
A2.7 H2 is an Alternative Reductor
A2.8 Very Stable Oxides
A2.9 About Solutions and Desired Purity Levels
A2.10 Some Conclusions
Appendix 3. Life-Cycle Assessment
A3.1 Life-Cycle Assessment
A3.2 Life-Cycle Assessment in the Mining and Metallurgy
A3.3 LCA and Multimetal Output
A3.4 End-of-Life Treatment in the LCA Context
A3.5 Case Studies on LCA Results for Multimetal Outputs
A3.6 Summary and Outlook