Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization

Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization

Author: George Wypych
ISBN 978-1-895198-46-1 

First Edition
Pages: 354
Chapters: 12
Figures: 94
Tables: 232


This book, the first monograph fully devoted to UV degradation and stabilization ever published in the English language, has 12 chapters, each discussing different aspect of UV related phenomena. In the introduction, the existing literature has been reviewed to find out how plants, animals, and humans protect themselves against UV radiation, and which lessons were already applied to the protection of man-made materials and final products, and which mechanisms work in living things but are not in the use of technical products.

Photophysics is discussed in the second chapter to build an understanding of physical phenomena occurring in materials when they are exposed to UV radiation. Potentially useful stabilization methods become obvious from the analysis of photophysics of the process but these effects are also combined with photochemical properties of stabilizers and their mechanisms of stabilization, and this subject is discussed in Chapter 3.

Chapter 4 contains information on available UV stabilizers. It contains a set of data prepared according to a systematic outline as listed in the Table of Contents. Stability of UV stabilizers, important for predicting the lifetime of their protection is discussed in Chapter 5. Different reasons of instability are included in the evaluation.

Principles of stabilizer selection are given in Chapter 6. Ten areas of influence of stabilizer properties and expectations from the final products were selected for discussion in this chapter. 

Chapters 7 and 8 give specific information on degradation and stabilization of different polymers & rubbers and final products manufactured from them, respectively. 50 polymers and rubbers are discussed in different sections of Chapter 7 and 40 groups of final products which use a majority of UV stabilizers are discussed in Chapter 8. In addition, more focused information is provided in Chapter 9 for sunscreens. This is an example of new developments in technology. The subjects discussed in each individual case of polymer or group of products are given in Table of Contents.

Specific effects of UV stabilizers which may affect formulation because of interaction between UV stabilizers and other components of formulations are discussed in Chapter 10. Analytical methods, which are most frequently used in UV stabilization, are discussed in Chapter 11 to show their potential in further understanding of UV degradation and stabilization.

The book is concluded with the effect of UV stabilizers on the health and safety of workers involved in their processing and public using the products (Chapter 12).

1. Introduction

2. Photophysics and photochemistry

3. Mechanisms of UV stabilization

3.1. Absorption, reflection, and refraction

3.2. Energy dissipation

3.3. Radical deactivation and retarding propagation of reaction chain

3.4. Singlet oxygen quenching

3.5. Degree of hindrance

3.6. Antioxidation

3.7. Peroxide and hydroperoxide decomposition

3.8. Acid neutralization

3.9. Repairing defects caused by degradation

3.10. Synergism

3.11. Antagonism

3.12. Effect of physical properties

4. UV stabilizers (chemical composition, physical-chemical properties, UV absorption, forms, applications – polymers and final products, concentrations used)

4.1. Organic UV absorbers

4.2. Inorganic materials

4.3. Particulate UV screeners

4.4. Fiber

4.5. Hindered amine stabilizers

4.6. Phenolic antioxidants

4.7. Phosphites & phosphonites

4.8. Thiosynergists

4.9. Amines

4.10. Quencher

4.11. Optical brighteners

4.12. Synergistic mixtures of stabilizers

5. Stability of UV stabilizers

5.1. UV degradation

5.2. Electronic structure

5.3. Chemical reactivity

5.4. Volatility

5.5. Effect of temperature

5.6. Oxygen partial pressure

5.7. Pollutants

5.8. Acid neutralization

5.9. Radical attack

5.10. Diffusion and migration

5.11. Grafting

5.12. Polymerization and copolymerization

5.13. Effect of pesticides

5.14. Complexation and ligand formation

5.15. Excited state interactions

5.16. Sol-gel protective coatings

5.17. Interaction with pigments

5.18. Gas fading

5.19. Effect of stress

6. Principles of stabilizer selection

6.1. Polarity

6.2. Acid/base

6.3. Hydrogen bonding

6.4. Process temperature

6.5. Color

6.6. Part thickness

6.7. Volatility, diffusion, migration, and extraction

6.8. Food contact

6.9. Thermal stabilizing performance

6.10. State

7. UV degradation and stabilization of polymers and rubbers (description according to the following outline: mechanisms and results of degradation, mechanisms and results of stabilization, and data on activation wavelength (spectral sensitivity), products of degradation, typical results of photodegradation, most important stabilizers, concentration of stabilizers in formulation, and examples of lifetime of typical polymeric materials)

7.1. Polymers

7.1.1. Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate

7.1.2. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene

7.1.3. Acrylic resins

7.1.4. Alkyd resins

7.1.5. Cellulose-based polymers

7.1.6. Chlorosulfonated polyethylene

7.1.7. Copolymers

7.1.8. Epoxy resin

7.1.9. Ethylene-propylene copolymer

7.1.10. Ethylene-propylene diene monomer

7.1.11. Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer

7.1.12. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer

7.1.13. Fluorinated ethyl-propylene

7.1.14. Polyacrylamide

7.1.15. Polyacrylonitrile

7.1.16. Polyalkylfluorene

7.1.17. Polyamide

7.1.18. Polyaniline

7.1.19. Polyarylate

7.1.20. Polybutylthiophene

7.1.21. Polycarbonate

7.1.22. Polyesters

7.1.23. Polyetherimide

7.1.24. Polyethylene

7.1.25. Polyfluorenes

7.1.26. Polyimide

7.1.27. Poly(L-lactic acid)

7.1.28. Polymethylmethacrylate

7.1.29. Polymethylpentene

7.1.30. Polyoxymethylene

7.1.31. Polyphthalamide

7.1.32. Poly(phenylene oxide)

7.1.33. Poly(p-phenylene sulfide)

7.1.34. Polypropylene

7.1.35. Polypyrrole

7.1.36. Polystyrene

7.1.37. Polytetrafluoroethylene

7.1.38. Polyurethane

7.1.39. Poly(vinyl chloride)

7.1.40. Poly(vinyl fluoride)

7.1.41. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)

7.1.42. Silicone

7.1.43. Styrene-acrylonitrile

7.1.44. Vinyl ester resin

7.2. Rubber

7.2.1. Polybutadiene

7.2.2. Polychloroprene

7.2.3. Polyisoprene

7.2.4. Polyisobutylene

7.2.5. Styrene-butadiene rubber

8. UV degradation and stabilization of industrial products (description according to the following outline: requirements, lifetime expectations, important changes and mechanisms, stabilization methods)

8.1. Adhesives

8.2. Aerospace

8.3. Agriculture

8.4. Automotive

8.5. Biology

8.6. Coated fabrics

8.7. Coatings and paints

8.8. Coil-coated materials

8.9. Cosmetics

8.10. Dental

8.11. Door and window profiles

8.12. Electrical and electronic applications

8.13. Fibers and yarns

8.14. Films

8.15. Fishing net

8.16. Foams

8.17. Food

8.18. Furniture

8.19. Geosynthetics

8.20. Glazing

8.21. Medical supplies

8.22. Optical fibers

8.23. Packaging

8.24. Pharmaceutical

8.25. Pipes

8.26. Pulp and paper

8.27. Railway materials

8.28. Rotational molded products

8.29. Roofing materials

8.30. Sealants

8.31. Sensors and switches

8.32. Sheets

8.33. Siding

8.34. Solar cells and solar energy applications

8.35. Sporting equipment

8.36. Tapes

8.37. Textiles

8.38. Windshield

8.39. Wire and cable

8.40. Wood

9 Focus on technology - Sunscreen

Christine Mendrok-Edinger, DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Switzerland

9.1 Introduction and history of sunscreens

9.2 Photoreactions of UV absorbers in cosmetic sunscreens

9.3 Ways of photostabilization in sunscreen products

9.4 Formulating for photostability

9.5 Summary

10 UV stabilizers and other components of formulation 

11 Analytical methods in UV degradation and stabilization studies

11.1 Quality control of UV stabilizers

11.2 Lifetime prediction

11.3 Molecular weight

11.4 Color change

11.5 Mechanical properties

11.6 Microscopy

11.7 Impedance measurement

11.8 Surface roughness

11.9 Imaging techniques

11.10 Chromatography

11.11 Spectroscopy

11.11.1 ESR

11.11.2 DART-MS

11.11.3 FTIR

11.11.4 NMR

11.11.5 UV

11.12 Hydroperoxide determination

12 UV stabilizers - health & safety

12.1 Toxic substance control

12.2 Carcinogenic effect

12.3 Workplace exposure limits

12.4 Food regulatory acts

George Wypych has a Ph. D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research & development. He has published 16 books: PVC Plastisols, (University Press); Polyvinylchloride Degradation, (Elsevier); Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, (Elsevier); Polymer Modified Textile Materials, (Wiley & Sons); Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Handbook of Fillers, 1st and 2nd Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Recycling of PVC, (ChemTec Publishing); Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, (Plastics Design Library), Handbook of Solvents, Handbook of Plasticizers, Handbook of Antistatics, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives, PVC Degradation & Stabilization, The PVC Formulary, Handbook of Biodegradation, Biodeterioration , and Biostabilization, Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization (all by ChemTec Publishing), 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings. He is included in the Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, Who's Who in Engineering, and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition for his services to education.