Handbook of Material Biodegradation, Biodeterioration, and Biostabilization

Handbook of Material Biodegradation, Biodeterioration, and Biostabilization

Author: Falkiewicz-Dulik, M; Janda, K; Wypych, G
ISBN 978-1-895198-44-7 

First Edition
Pages: 368
Figures: 63
Tables: 188

This book is about protection of materials and products against colonization and subsequent degradation of their properties. The book contains 9 chapters each devoted to essential aspects related to biodegradation and biostabilization.
The introductory chapter gives historical note on chronological developments in the field, presents classification of biocidal products, and defines essential terms which are frequently used in the subject of the book.

Microorganisms involved in biodegradation and biodeterioration of materials are presented within the framework of their classification, based on the most recent developments and agreements. Information on 13 groups of bacteria 7 groups of fungi, and 4 groups of protozoa are discussed in Chapter 2, which also contains discussion of major mechanisms of biodegradation and biodeterioration, including biofilm formation and its effects on biostabilization of materials.

Chapter 3 is devoted to industrial biocides. It begins with discussion of mechanisms of biostabilization followed by discussion of types of biostabilizers. In this discussion, biocides are divided into 19 groups and properties of stabilizers for each group are given in the tabular form. Only stabilizers permitted for use in European Union and the USA are included in the discussion. The selection is based on the current in 2010 lists of approved substances.

Chapter 4 contains information on biodegradation, biodeterioration and biostabilization of industrial products. For each group of products, relevant microorganisms, essential product components, mechanisms of biodegradation and biodeterioration, results of biodeterioration, biostabilization, and used formulations are given. Twenty two groups of industrial products are included in evaluation. Also, 24 groups of polymers are discussed here in separate sections.

Chapter 5 contains information on standard and other frequently used analytical methods in the field of the book. Chapter 6 contains evaluation of health and safety aspects of biocide application. Chapter 7 contains the most current information on environmental fate of biostabilizers, including their concentrations, toxicity, and the rates of decay. Discussion is based on the most current data (current decade) to give real picture of current situation.

Chapter 8 contains information on regulations developed in European Union, by world organizations, and in the USA to give a comprehensive background of legislative measures. The last chapter is on protection of workers who use biocides in their work.
This comprehensive source of fundamental information and data is based on thousands of papers, patents, and information from biocide manufacturers. The above contents and the most-up-to-date information make this book essential for almost all the fields of applied chemistry.

Very drastic changes in biocides which can be used according to regulations make most of the very informative books published in past misleading because regulations eliminated many products, which they discuss. This book only looks to future applications, giving ideas on how to protect materials in today’s environment.

1 Introduction 
1.1 Short historical note
1.2 Classification
1.3 Definitions

2 Microorganism involved in biodegradation of materials 

2.1 General classifications of living things
2.2 Bacteria
2.2.1 Actinobacteria
2.2.2 Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi
2.2.3 Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobiae
2.2.4 Chloroflexi
2.2.5 Cyanobacteria
2.2.6 Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria
2.2.7 Firmicutes
2.2.8 Fusobacteria
2.2.9 Nitrospirae
2.2.10 Planctomycetes
2.2.11 Proteobacteria
2.2.12 Thermodesulfobacteria
2.2.13 Thermotogae
2.3 Fungi
2.3.1 Ascomycota
2.3.2 Basidiomycota
2.3.3 Blastocladiomycota
2.3.4 Chytridiomycota
2.3.5 Glomeromycota
2.3.6 Microsporidia
2.3.7 Neocallimastigomycota
2.4 Protozoa
2.5 Biodegradation & biodeterioration mechanisms

3 Industrial biocides

3.1 General mechanisms of biostabilization
3.2 Chemical types of biostabilizers
3.2.1 Acetal aldehyde-releasing compounds
3.2.2 Acid esters
3.2.3 Acids
3.2.4 Active halogen products
3.2.5 Alcohols
3.2.6 Aldehydes
3.2.7 Amides
3.2.8 Azoles
3.2.9 Carbamates
3.2.10 Formaldehyde-releasing compounds
3.2.11 Haloalkylthio compounds
3.2.12 Heterocyclic N,S-compounds
3.2.13 Metal-containing products
3.2.14 Oxidizing agents
3.2.15 Phenolics
3.2.16 Polymeric materials
3.2.17 Pyridine derivatives
3.2.18 Quaternary ammonium compounds and other surface active agents
3.2.19 Other (not included) products
3.3 Principles of selection of biostabilizers
3.4 Longevity of biostabilized materials

4 Biodegradation, biodeterioration, and biostabilization of industrial products

4.1 Building products 
4.2 Coatings and paints 
4.3 Cultural heritage excluding stone building and monuments
4.4 Dental materials
4.5 Electrical and electronic products 
4.6 Fibers and textiles 
4.7 Leather and leather products 
4.8 Marine transport
4.9 Medical applications
4.10 Metals
4.11 Mineral dispersions
4.12 Petroleum products (fuels and lubricants)
4.13 Pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and toiletries 
4.14 Polymers
4.15 Pulp and paper 
4.16 Roofing materials
4.17 Rubber
4.18 Sealants and adhesives
4.19 Stones and other building materials
4.21 Swimming pools
4.22 Water
4.23 Wood

5 Analytical methods in biodegradation, biodeterioration, and biostabilization 
5.1 Standards
5.1.1 Adhesives and sealants
5.1.2 Antifouling coatings
5.1.3 Antiseptic drugs and handwash
5.1.4 Chemical materials in general
5.1.5 Coatings and paints
5.1.6 Cooling water systems
5.1.7 Detergents
5.1.8 Fuels and fuels systems
5.1.9 Geomembranes and geotextiles
5.1.10 Hydraulic fluids
5.1.11 Lubricants
5.1.12 Lumber, pallets, and wood boxes
5.1.13 Metalworking fluids
5.1.14 Oilfield and refinery
5.1.15 Oil spill response
5.1.16 Packaging
5.1.17 Paper
5.1.18 Plastics and polymers
5.1.19 Stone consolidants
5.1.20 Surgical implants and medical devices
5.1.21 Water systems
5.2 Non-conventional analysis
6 Biostabilizers - health & safety 
6.1 Toxic substance control
6.2 Carcinogenic effects
6.3 Workplace exposure limits
6.4 Food regulatory acts

7 Environmental fates of biostabilizers 

7.1 Concentration
7.2 Toxicity
7.3 Decay

8 Legislation 

8.1 European Union
8.2 International
8.3 USA

9 Personal protection 

9.1 Clothing
9.2 Gloves
9.3 Eye protection
9.4 Respiratory protection

Michalina Falkiewicz-Dulik has a M.Sc. degree in experimental physics and thirty years of experience in leather products manufacture with special reference to research, development, and technology implementation on industrial scale. She coauthored 2 books: Microbiology of materials (Technical University of Łódź Press) and Light industry - management and organization of production, materials science, technology and design, (Kazimierz Pułaski Technical University of Radom Press). She has published 24 scientific papers, 3 know-how manuals, 87 articles and reports in: Medical Mycology, Advances in Dermatology and Allergology, Przegląd Skórzany, Przegląd Włókienniczy WOS, Ochrona Przed Korozją. She has been awarded four prizes by Polish Federation of Engineering Associations NOT for technologies of manufacturing synthetic materials and one prize by National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management for the project “Recycling Technology – Technology Recycling”. She is also forensic expert in the area of leather and leather goods, raw materials, plastic and rubber, and leather processing and footwear as well as an auditor of Quality Management System according to ISO 9001.

Dr. Eng. Katarzyna Janda is an associate professor at the Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture in West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin. She has been teaching in the area of preservation, storage, processing, and evaluation of commodity plant materials. Dr. Janda conducts research on enzymatic activity and effects of fungi, especially those colonizing plant materials, on storage stability of various materials. She has published 47 research papers and coauthored a book entitled Microbiology of Materials published by the Technical University of Lodz Press, with contribution on biodeterioration of petroleum products.


George Wypychhas a Ph. D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research & development. He has published 15 books: PVC Plastisols, (University Press); Polyvinylchloride Degradation, (Elsevier); Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, (Elsevier); Polymer Modified Textile Materials, (Wiley & Sons); Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Handbook of Fillers, 1st and 2nd Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Recycling of PVC, (ChemTec Publishing); Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, (Plastics Design Library), Handbook of Solvents, Handbook of Plasticizers, Handbook of Antistatics, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives, PVC Degradation & Stabilization, The PVC Formulary, Handbook of Biodegradation, Biodeterioration , and Biostabilization (all by ChemTec Publishing), 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings. He is included in the Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, Who's Who in Engineering, and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition for his services to education.