Handbook of Material Weathering 7th Edition

Handbook of Material Weathering 7th Edition

Author: George Wypych
ISBN 978-1-77467-058-3

Published: Jan 2025
Pages: 1024+x
Figures: 830
Tables: 66


The 7th edition of the Handbook of Material Weathering is a comprehensive and systematic update of knowledge related to material weathering. It has been continuously revised and expanded to include the most recent advancements and discoveries in the field. The update is crucial because the field of material weathering has been evolving rapidly, with a substantial increase in research output in recent times.

Some key highlights of the 7th edition are:

Extensive Research: Over the last 35 years since the 1st edition, there has been a substantial increase in research in material weathering. Recently, more than 2000 new papers have been published yearly on polymer weathering, amounting to an average of about 40 new papers per week. This reflects the growing interest and importance of weathering studies in various industries and scientific communities

Expanding Knowledge: The rapidly growing information required for professional use in material weathering has led to the need for additional books to accommodate essential knowledge. This indicates the increasing complexity and depth of research in the field and the need to address new challenges and applications. This is addressed by two new books that are published this year in addition to the Handbook of Material Weathering, each concentrating on a separate, significant subject: Weathering. Testing Manual that concentrates on standardized and emerging test methods and Encyclopedia of Polymer Degradation that departs from the classical treatment of weathering towards chemistry-based protection of environmental impact of waste-generating, degrading materials. 

Chapters and Topics: The 7th edition of the Handbook contains 22 chapters that cover various aspects of material weathering. These chapters can be categorized into groups, such as theory (photophysics and photochemistry), stress factors (parameters of exposure, measurements, and climatic conditions), methods of weathering (laboratory degradation studies, sample preparation, etc.), and specific topics like weathering of polymers and products, the effect of additives, UV stabilizers, environmental stress cracking, and more. The table of contents below contains more details.

Global Reach: The Handbook of Material Weathering is utilized in more than 100 countries, emphasizing its importance and relevance on an international scale. The book is valuable for research chemists, material scientists, manufacturers, quality controllers, and students seeking to apply their knowledge to real-world materials. 

Timely Updates: Access to the most recent information in the field is crucial, as older editions might contain outdated information or need more current advancements. Therefore, a new edition is prepared to ensure that readers have access to the most up-to-date and relevant information.

Overall, the Handbook of Material Weathering is a valuable resource for professionals and researchers involved in material science, photochemistry, and related fields. It helps bridge the gap between theoretical knowledge and practical applications, aiding in developing durable and weather-resistant materials and products.

1 Photophysics 
1.1 Nature of radiation 
1.2 Absorption of radiation by materials 
1.3 Fate and utilization of absorbed energy 
1.4 Radiative processes involving dimers 
1.5 Modeling and photophysical data 
2 Photochemistry 
2.1 Typical routes of photochemical reactions 
2.2 Photochemical reactivity and quantum yield 
2.3 Excitation of excited state 
2.4 Parameters of photochemical reactions 
2.5 Quenchers and photosensitizers 
3 Parameters of Exposure 
3.1 Radiation 
3.2 Temperature 
3.3 Water 
3.4 Atmosphere composition 
3.5 Pollutants 
3.6 Biological substances 
3.7 Water pollutants 
3.8 Stress 
3.9 Cooperative action of different parameters 
4 Measurements in Assessment of Weathering Conditions 
4.1 Radiation 
4.2 Sunshine duration 
4.3 Temperature 
4.4 Relative humidity 
4.5 Time of wetness 
4.6 Rain 
4.7 Pollutants 
5 Climatic Conditions 
5.1 Introduction 
5.2 Radiation 
5.3 Sunshine duration 
5.4 Temperature 
5.5 Precipitation 
5.6 Relative humidity 
5.7 Wetness time 
5.8 Pollutants 
5.9 Surface soiling 
6 Methods of Outdoor Exposure 
6.1 Introduction 
6.2 Climatic conditions and degradation rate 
6.3 Variability of weather conditions and its impact on the strategy in outdoor exposures 
6.4 Influence of specimen properties 
6.5 Typical methods of outdoor exposure 
6.6 Other parameters of exposure 
6.7 Relevant Standards 
7 Laboratory Degradation Studies 
7.1 Introduction 
7.2 Light sources 
7.3 Filters 
7.4 Radiation: delivery, monitoring, and control 
7.5 Temperature control 
7.6 Humidity control 
7.7 Specimen spraying 
7.8 Specimen racks and holders 
7.9 Weathering equipment 
7.10 Correlation between different devices 
7.11 Pollutants 
7.12 Precision of studies 
8 Weathering Cycles 
9 Sample Preparation 
10 Weathering Data Interpretation. Lifetime Prediction 
11 Artificial Weathering Versus Natural Exposure 
12 Effect of Weathering on Material Properties 
12.1 Mass loss 
12.2 Depth of degradation 
12.3 Mechanical properties 
12.4 Changes in color and optical properties 
12.5 Surface changes 
12.6 Molecular weight 
12.7 Chemical composition of surface and bulk 
12.8 Morphology and structure of surface layers 
12.9 Glass transition temperature 
12.10 Self-healing 
13 Testing Methods of Weathered Specimen 
13.1 Visual evaluation 
13.2 Microscopy 
13.3 Imaging techniques 
13.4 Gloss 
13.5 Color changes 
13.6 Visible Spectrophotometry 
13.7 UV spectrophotometry 
13.8 Infrared spectrophotometry 
13.9 Near-infrared spectroscopy 
13.10 Raman spectroscopy 
13.11 Nuclear magnetic resonance 
13.12 Electron spin resonance 
13.13 Mass spectrometry 
13.14 Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy 
13.15 Chemiluminescence, fluorescence, and phosphorescence 
13.16 Atomic absorption spectroscopy 
13.17 WAXS and SAXS 
13.18 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS 
13.19 X-ray microtomography 
13.20 Mass change 
13.21 Density 
13.22 Contact angle 
13.23 Diffusion of gasses and water transport in polymers 
13.24 Electrical properties 
13.25 Ultrasonic measurements 
13.26 Thermal analysis 
13.27 Rheological properties of materials 
13.28 Other physical parameters 
13.29 Tensile strength 
13.30 Elongation 
13.31 Flexural strength 
13.32 Impact strength 
13.33 Creep and constant strain tests 
13.34 Residual stress 
13.35 Scratch and mar resistance 
13.36 Other mechanical properties 
13.37 Surface roughness 
13.38 Molecular weight 
13.39 Gas and liquid chromatography 
13.40 Titrimetry 
13.41 Dehydrochlorination rate 
13.42 Gel fraction 
13.43 Oxygen uptake 
13.44 Water absorption, porosity 
13.45 Microorganism growth test 
13.46 Environmental stress cracking resistance 
14 Data on Specific Polymers 
14.1 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, ABS 
14.2 Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate, ASA 
14.3 Alkyd resins 
14.4 Acrylic resins 
14.5 Cellulose 
14.6 Chitosan 
14.7 Epoxy resins 
14.8 Ethylene-propylene rubber, EPR 
14.9 Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, EVAc 
14.10 Ethylene propylene diene monomer, EPDM 
14.11 Fluoropolymers 
14.12 Melamine resins 
14.13 Phenoxy resins 
14.14 Polyacrylamide 
14.15 Polyacrylonitrile 
14.16 Polyamides 
14.17 Polyaniline 
14.18 Polycarbonates 
14.19 Polyesters 
14.20 Polyethylene 
14.21 Polyethylene, chlorinated 
14.22 Poly(ethylene glycol) 
14.23 Polyfluorene 
14.24 Polyimides 
14.25 Poly(lactic acid) 
14.26 Polymethylmethacrylate 
14.27 Polyoxyethylene 
14.28 Polyoxymethylene 
14.29 Poly(phenylene oxide) 
14.30 Poly(phenylene sulfide) 
14.31 Poly(-phenylene terephthalamide) 
14.32 Poly(-phenylene vinylene) 
14.33 Polypropylene 
14.34 Polystyrenes 
14.35 Polysulfones 
14.36 Polytetrafluoroethylene 
14.37 Polythiophene 
14.38 Polyurethanes 
14.39 Poly(vinyl alcohol) 
14.40 Polyvinylchloride 
14.41 Poly(vinylidene fluoride) 
14.42 Poly(vinyl methyl ether) 
14.43 Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer 
14.44 Silicones 
14.45 Polymer blends 
14.46 Rubbers 
15 Effect of Additives on Weathering 
15.1 Fillers and reinforcing fibers 
15.2 Pigments 
15.3 Plasticizers 
15.4 Solvents and diluents 
15.5 Flame retardants 
15.6 Impact modifiers 
15.7 Thermal stabilizers 
15.8 Antioxidants 
15.9 Antimicrobial additives 
15.10 Curatives, crosslinkers, initiators 
15.11 Catalysts 
15.12 Compatibilizer 
15.12 Impurities 
15.13 Summary 
16 Weathering of Compounded Products 
16.1 Adhesives 
16.2 Aerospace 
16.3 Agriculture 
16.4 Appliances 
16.5 Automotive parts 
16.6 Automotive coatings 
16.7 Coated fabrics 
16.8 Coil-coated materials 
16.9 Composites 
16.10 Concrete 
16.11 Conservation 
16.12 Construction materials 
16.13 Cosmetics 
16.14 Dental materials 
16.15 Electronics and electrical materials 
16.16 Environmental pollutants 
16.17 Foams 
16.18 Food 
16.19 Gel coats 
16.20 Geosynthetics 
16.21 Glass and glazing materials 
16.22 Greenhouse film 
16.23 Hair 
16.24 Laminates 
16.25 Medical equipment and supplies 
16.26 Military applications 
16.27 Molded materials 
16.28 Packaging materials 
16.29 Paints and coatings 
16.30 Pavements 
16.31 Pharmaceutical products 
16.32 Pipes and tubing 
16.33 Pulp and paper 
16.34 Roofing materials 
16.35 Sealants 
16.36 Sheet 
16.37 Siding 
16.38 Solar cells and collectors 
16.39 Textiles 
16.40 Windows 
16.41 Wire and cable 
16.42 Wood 
17 Stabilization and Stabilizers 
17.1 Limiting the incoming radiation 
17.2 Deactivation of excited states and free radicals 
17.3 Elimination of singlet oxygen, peroxide decomposition, and limiting oxidative changes 
17.4 Defect removal 
17.5 Stability of UV stabilizers 
17.6 Distribution of UV absorber 
17.7 Stabilizer entrapment and interaction 
17.8 Protective coatings 
17.9 Examples of stabilization technology 
18 Biodegradation 
18.1 Biodegradation environment 
18.2 Enzymatic reactions 
18.3 Biodegradation of materials 
18.4 Biocides 
18.5 Methods of testing 
18.6 Controlled biodegradation 
19 Recycling 
19.1 Effect of degradation on recycling 
19.2 Re-stabilization of material for recycling 
19.3 Multilayer materials 
19.4 Removable paint 
19.5 Chemical recycling 
20 Environmental Stress Cracking 
20.1 Definitions 
20.2 Parameters controlling ESC 
20.3 Mechanisms of environmental stress cracking 
20.4 Kinetics of environmental stress cracking 
20.5 Effect of ESC on material durability 
20.6 Methods of testing 
21 Interrelation Between Corrosion and Weathering 
22 Weathering of Stones 

George Wypych has PhD Eng. The professional expertise includes university teaching (full professor) and research & development (university and corporate). He has published 48 books (PVC Plastisols, Wroclaw University Press; Polyvinylchloride Degradation, Elsevier; Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, Elsevier; Polymer Modified Textile Materials, Wiley & Sons; Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th Edition, ChemTec Publishing; Handbook of Fillers, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Edition, ChemTec Publishing; Recycling of PVC, ChemTec Publishing; Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, Plastics Design Library, Handbook of Solvents, Vol. 1. Properties 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Solvents, Vol. 2. Health & Environment 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Plasticizers, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Antistatics, 1st and 2nd Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Antistatics, 1st and 2nd Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release and Slip Additives, 1st , 2nd and 3rd Edition, ChemTec Publishing, Industrial Solvents in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (two editions), John Wiley & Sons, PVC Degradation & Stabilization, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Editions, ChemTec Publishing, The PVC Formulary, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Editions, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Material Biodegradation, Biodeterioration, and Biostabilization, 1st and 2nd Editions, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Editions, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Polymers, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Editions, ChemTec Publishing, Atlas of Material Damage, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Editions, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Odors in Plastic Materials, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Editions, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Solvents (two editions), ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Blowing and Auxiliary Agents, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents (two editions), ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Green Solvents, ChemTec Publishing (two editions), Self-healing Products (two editions), ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Adhesion Promoters (two editions), ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Surface Modification Additives (two editions), ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Surface Improvement and Modification (two editions), ChemTec Publishing, Graphene – Important Results and Applications, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Curatives and Crosslinkers, ChemTec Publishing, Chain Mobility and Progress in Medicine, Pharmaceutical, Polymer Science and Technology, Impact of Award, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Antioxidants, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Antioxidants, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of UV Stabilizers (two Editions), ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Flame Retardants, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Nucleating Agents, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Flame Retardants, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Nucleating Agents, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Polymers in Electronics, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Impact Modifiers, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Rheological Additives, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Impact Modifiers, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Rheological Additives, ChemTec Publishing, Databook of Polymer Processing Additives, ChemTec Publishing, Handbook of Polymer Processing Additives, ChemTec Publishing, Functional Fillers (two editions), 2 databases (Solvents Database, 1st, 2nd, 3rd Edition and Database of Antistatics 1st and 2nd Edition, both by ChemTec Publishing), and 42 scientific papers and obtained 16 patents. He specializes in PVC, polymer additives, material durability, and the development of sealants and coatings. He was included in the Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, and Who's Who in Engineering, and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition of services to education.